Marfan syndrome can be understood as a connective tissue disorder – which relates to the tissue that strengthens the body. The syndrome is usually featured with a tall, slender body with long limbs & extremely long, thin fingers & toes. The most serious complications are the defects of the heart valves and the aorta, which could lead to an aortic rupture (due to too much stress on the aorta), which is usually fatal. But many people who have this disorder are not aware of it! This is partly because Marfan syndrome typically becomes manifest only after the age of 5. But there are many hand signs that have a highly reliable diagnostic value!

Marfan syndrome is featured with many typical hand characteristics, however a combination of two specific hands signs related to a long hand shape (hand signs) & hand motorics (joint hypermobility) is often enough to identify the disorder.

The Steinberg sign & Walker-Murdoch sign.

THE STEINBERG SIGN (a):

This test is used for the clinical evaluation of Marfan patients.

Procedure:
Instruct the patient to fold his thumb into the closed fist. This test is positive if the thumb tip extends from palm of hand (see figure a).

THE WALKER-MURDOCH SIGN (b):

This test is used for the evaluation of patients with Marfan syndrome.

Procedure:
Instruct the patient to grip his wrist with his opposite hand. If thumb and fifth finger of the hand overlap with each other, this represents a positive Walker-Murdoch sign (see figure b).


JOINT HYPERMOBILITY

How to check if a person has hypermobility? You can check this easily by doing the 5 tests that are included in the so-called ‘Beighton score‘: see figure 1.

A ‘Beighton score’ of 4 or above usually indicates hypermobility.

And if a person has the Sternberg sign + Walker-Murdoch sign + hypermobility, the chances are above 90% that the person has Marfan syndrome.

The presence of other related hand markers such as: skin quality (hyperextensiblity), a simian crease, extra digital transverse creases, or a high positioned axial triradius provide other significant hand signs which are indicative for a person to have a medical test for Marfan syndrome.

A typical 'Marfan' hand gesture!

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What discriminates ‘Multi-Perspective Palm Reading’ from all other approaches in the field of hand reading?

Multi-Perspective Palm Reading is a new type of hand reading that is rising from scientific research reports that relate to the hand as a ‘diagnostic tool’. The unique characteristic of this advanced type of palm reading is that it only includes hand markers which have been confirmed to have significant value according scientific studies. So this NEXT NATURE variant of ‘palmistry’ is not connected anyhow with astrology nor any other philosophic system.

In Multi-Perspective Palm Reading is the hand studied from 7 different perspectives in order to make an assessment for various specified themes – which can result in either a confirming- or prognostic ‘hand-diagnosis’.


The philosophy behind Multi-Perspective Palm Reading:

The philosophy behind this new advanced type of hand reading can be described as follows:

“In Multi-Perspective Palm Reading, a reliable hand-diagnosis is only possible when a pair of hands displays ‘diagnostic clues’ in MULTIPLE perspectives of the hand. According Multi-Perspective Palm Reading a person typically requires to have ‘diagnostic clues’ in at least 3 perspectives of his/her hands, before one can speak of a solid, specified hand-diagnosis.

The application of this philosophy in the practice for making a hand assessment can be understood by studying the role of the simian line in hand diagnostics. In the 20th century the simian line (the most well known of all palm line variations: a.k.a. the single palmar transverse crease or simian crease) became known as a diagnostic marker for Down syndrome. However, during the past decades this uncommon hand marker was recognized as a ‘minor physical anomaly’ that has diagnostic value for other syndromes, diseases & developmental problems. But in order to specify it’s significance as a major hand line for the individual that has this characteristic in one or both hands, a study of the other perspectives of the hand is required!


The 7 perspectives used in Multi-Perspective Palm Reading:

In the following seven perspectives are required to be studied in order to make a thorough hand assessment:

1 – Palm Reading & the HAND SHAPE, including e.g.: hand index, palm shape, hand length, hand breath.

2 – Palm Reading & the FINGERNAILS, including e.g.: color, morphology, structure, growth.

3 – Palm Reading & FINGER MORPHOLOGY, including e.g.: finger length, 2D:4D ratio, variations in shape & width.

4 – Palm Reading & the MAJOR LINES, including e.g.: primary creases, secundary creases, tertairy creases & accessory lines.

5 – Palm Reading & the DERMATOGLYPHICS, including e.g.: fingerprints, palmar dermatoglyphics.

6 – Palm Reading & SKIN QUALITY, including e.g.: colour, structure, flexure / tone.

7 – Palm Reading & HAND MOTORICS, including e.g.: flexibility, motoric hand index.

Read more about how Multi-Perspective Palm Reading varies from other types of hand reading & modern palmistry via the Wikipedia section: Modern Palmistry: science & criticism

Sweat drops in the pores of the skin ridges (dermatoglyphs)

Many people sometimes wonder about the function of their ‘fingerprints’. Why do we have them? The answer is foundstarts in the sweat pores!

As you probably know, the whole body is featured with sweat pores (featured with eccrine sweat glands) – except for the lips & the sexual organs.
 
But in the hands & the feet the sweat pores have a highly specialized role. Because in the inner palm and on the sole the sweat pores manifest on so-called ‘friction ridge skin’ – the so-called skin ridges (see the picture above) that became especially known in the perspective of the fingerprints.
 
Skin ridges & grooves!
 
In the skin ridges the sweat pores are found – in a fingerprint the ridges manifest as the ‘black lines’ and in a high quality fingerprint one can sometimes even see the sweat fore: see the picture below!
 
The surrounding ‘grooves’ serve as a transport channel to distribute the sweat through the hands & feet. And the combination of these element prevent our hands & feet to become ‘slippy’!
 
Because skin friction arises from the interaction between the sweat & the skin of the body, and is directly related to the area of the surface of the body that is in contact with the fluid. An important feature in order to have effective ‘grip’ in your hands!
 
“But keep your head cool, otherwise your sweat glands will start produce too much moisture resulting in a reduced grasp stability!”
 
 
Learn more about the life in the skin of your hand:

Discover 20 skin-facts you didn’t know – including hands, fingerprints & dermatoglyphics!

 

Psoriasis is a common skin condition that causes skin redness and irritation. Most persons with psoriasis have thick, red skin with flaky, silver-white patches called scales. The diseases is seen in about 1% to 3% of the world population.

The hand in psoriasis shows many more stricking features that relate to the disease. Especially the fingernails display often typical characteristics, including e.g. nail pitting, onycholysis, oil drop signs & nail dystrophy – which are all featured in the video above presented by Dr. James L. Campbell Jr., MD.

But there are many other hand & nail characteristics involved in psoriasis. The following article present an overview of 24 hand markers in psoriasis:

HANDS & PSORIASIS: 24 hand markers


A classic example of the hand in psoriasis vulgaris:

The “Preacher Sign” involves the inability to flatten the hands against each other – a hand characteristic that is frequently seen in diabetes mellitus patients.

Diabetes mellitus belongs to a category of diseases that is known for having quite a few hand markers that ‘signal’ the development of the disease. Type 1 and type 2 have many common characteristics regarding the hands, but one has to be aware that some of them are limited to only one variant of the disease.

The most revealing dimensions of the hand in diabeter are: the MOTORICS (including the “Preacher Sign”), the FINGERNAILS, the SKIN QUALITY & the DERMATOGLYPHICS. And even the notorious simian crease is about twice to four times more often seen among diabetic patients – compared to the general population.
The following article presents an overview of 33 hand markers for Diabetes Mellitis – type 2 (all reported features have been confirms as ‘signficant’ in various scientific studies:
 
 
(A ‘phantom picture’ for the hand in diabetes will become available later)

Chinese story about the leg that saved a hand!

NOVEMBER 2010: Ming Li, a Chinese 9-year girl, lost her hand when she was run over by a tractor. Doctors could not reattach the hand straight away, so instead grafted it on to her right leg to keep it alive until the operation was possible. After 3 months the hand was rejoined to her wrist using nerves and skin from her leg.

Doctor Hou shared his optimistic perspective for the girl: “After the surgeries and with enough hand training, her left hand could resume most of its functions.”

The photo below brings the good news: Ming Li is doing fine, with good circulation and she can move her wrist in a normal fashion.

MORE WEIRD HAND NEWS!

 In 1988 a very unusual hand therapy became available at various Spa centers in the world, named: ‘Doctor fish’. Doctor fish are a species called Garra Rufa (and Cyprinion Macrostomus) – which originate in pools near two small Turkish towns, Kangal and Sivas. In non-medical contexts, Garra rufa is called the reddish log sucker. They have long been known for their ability to treat the symptoms of skin conditions, especially: psoriasis!

“Doctor fish” – so named for their ability to produce healthy, glowing results from even the most crusty or diseased epidermis – are the key ingredient in a spa and skin treatment becoming increasingly popular across Turkey, Japan, China, Europe and the US.

The idea is that you immerse your hands, feet, or, if you are brave enough, your entire body in a warm pool that swarms with hundreds of hungry minnow-sized feeders. The fish zoom in on your most crusty, flaky or scabby skin and chomp away at it to reveal the fresh layer beneath. According to the spas and their enthusiasts, you emerge refreshed, healthy, buffed and glowing.

SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER READING:
Let’s shake hands with the hand fish!
Into the hands of ‘Paul the Octopus’!
The mystery of the five fingers!
Five things that your 5 fingers can tell you!
The difference between the human hand & the hands of primates!

Evolution: from fish to human!

Eczema in hands - dyshidrotic eczema.

THE BASICS OF MEDICAL HAND ANALYSIS

[tweetmeme source=”handresearch” only_single=false] Dyshidrotic eczema is a chronic relapsing form of vesicular palmoplantar dermatitis of unknown etiology. Although the etiology is unclear, there is a strong association with atopy. Fifty percent of patients with dyshidrotic eczema will also have atopic dermatitis. Exogenous factors, especially metals (such as nickel), may trigger episodes.

Patients typically report pruritus of the hands and feet with a sudden onset of vesicles. On examination, patients will have symmetric crops of clear vesicles and/or bullae on the palms as well as lateral aspects of the fingers and toes, feet, and soles (shown). The distribution of lesions is 80% hands only, 10% feet only, and 10% feet and hands.

Eczema in hands - lichen simplex chronicus.

Lichen simplex chronicus is a thickening of the skin with variable scaling that arises secondary to repetitive scratching or rubbing. It is not a primary process, but develops when patients sense pruritus, repetitively excoriate the area, and develop lichenification.

The etiology of the pruritus may be due to any underlying pathology, or none at all. Patients typically report stable pruritic plaques, most commonly on the scalp, nape of the neck, extensor forearms, elbows, vulva, scrotum, upper medial thighs, knees, lower legs, and ankles. Erythema is found in early lesions. The plaques are typically well demarcated, lichenified, firm, and rough with exaggerated skin lines. Hyperpigmentation may be present. Treatment is aimed at reducing pruritus with topical corticosteroids or oral antihistamines. In some patients, antianxiety medications are require.

Eczema in hands - irritant contact dermatitis.

Irritant contact dermatitis is a nonspecific response of the skin to direct chemical damage. It is the clinical result of inflammation arising from the release of proinflammatory cytokines from skin cells, principally keratinocytes.

The major pathophysiologic changes are skin-barrier disruption, epidermal cellular changes, and cytokine release. Although a wide range of chemicals may be responsible, the most common causes are repeated exposure to low-grade irritants, such as soaps and detergents. Acute irritant contact dermatitis may develop within minutes to hours of exposure, whereas the cumulative form may be delayed by weeks. On examination, patients may exhibit macular erythema, hyperkeratosis, or fissuring over vesiculation with a scalded appearance of the epidermis (shown). Healing typically beings promptly after removal of the offending agent, although creams containing ceramides or dimethicone may be useful to help restore the epidermal barrier.

SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER READING:
Medical palm reading: the basics of hand diagnostics!
The nail tutur: find the cause of fingernail disorders!
Medscape presents: ‘the many faces of eczema’

Palmar keratosis is often seen in bladder cancer & lung cancer.

HANDS ON CANCER – ‘Palmar keratosis’ is often seen in various types of cancer!

‘Palmar keratosis’ is a relatively common skin condition characterized by an overgrowth of keratin on the skin of the hand. Interestingly, this skin condition in the hand is about 4 times more frequently observed in persons with various cancerous tumors, including: bladder cancer & lung cancer.

Some statistics on ‘palmar keratosis’ & cancer:

“This skin condition in the hand is about 4 times more frequently observed in persons with cancerous tumors – compared to healthy individuals (15% to 23%). Multiple studies have indicated that ‘palmar keratosis’ is especially very often seen in patients with bladder cancer (67% to 87%) or lung cancer (71%).”

NOTICE: ‘Skin keratosis’ is a very common (pre-cancerous growth) skin condition – ‘actinic keratosis‘, the most common variant, is usually found on various body parts, including: the backs of the upper arms, thighs, and (especially in women) the buttocks areas.

SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER READING:

HANDS ON CANCER: 4 hand characteristics related to various cancers!
HAND-FOOT SYNDROME: Why a cancer patient may have no fingerprints!
Can palm reading pick up ovarian cancer?
Tripe palms may signal lung cancer or stomach cancer!
Nail clubbing may signal lung, heart & stomach diseases!
Palmar fascial thickening + deeper palm lines linked with ovarian cancer!

Palmar fascial thickening + deeper palmar lines linked to ovarian cancer.

‘Palmar fascial thickening’ relates to ovarian cancer!

Curling or thickening of the hand palm combined with swelling of the fingers, making the hand look like wood with lumpy areas. It’s called PFPAS, a.k.a the ‘palmar fasciitis and polyarthritis syndrome’ (PFPAS).

What are the palmar fascia?

The palmar fascia lie under the skin on the palm of the hand and fingers. These fascia are a thin sheet of connective tissue, and the fascia separate into thin bands of tissue at the fingers. The fascia cover the tendons of the palm of the hand and holds them in place. It also prevents the fingers from bending too far backward when pressure is placed against the front of the fingers – see the picture below.

The palmar fascia:
The palmar fascia lies under the skin of the palm & fingers!

Some statistics on ‘palmar fascial thickening’ & cancer:

“Combined with a deepening of the palmar lines this hand characteristic is since 1982 known as a signal for ovarian cancer – but it’s a very rare condition for since then about 40 cases have been reported.”

NOTICE: Problems with the palmar fascia are also often seen in “Dupuytren’s contracture” (Dupuytren’s disease).

SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER READING:

Hands on cancer: how the hand signals various type of cancers!
How a doctor found a brain cancer via a handshake!
Can palm reading pick up ovarian cancer?
More about how the hand relates to cancer!
How fingerprints may disappear from cancer drugs