A new  study from the University of Utah suggests that the size and shape of the human hand may have evolved for fighting… with bare fists!

Human hands built the Taj Mahal and adorned the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel with glorious art – but they also evolved for fighting, according to a new theory.

New evidence suggests it was not just dexterity that shaped the human hand, violence may have been involved also. The scientist claim that hands may have evolved through natural selection to form a punching fist:

“The role aggression has played in our evolution has not been adequately appreciated,” said Professor David Carrier, from the University of Utah.

FULL STORY: The Telegraph

Find your hand shape in 3 steps!

The picture above serves to describes how to find your Elemental Hand Shape in just 3 steps.

The picture shows how each of the 4 elemental hand shapes tends to have a specific combination of proportional hand shape ratios.

In short: the Earth hand shape is featured with short fingers + short palm length, while the Fire hand shape is featured with short fingers + a long palm shape. 

And the Air hand shape is featured with long fingers + a short hand shape, and finally the Water hand shape is featured with long fingers + a long hand shape.

Now, how to find your hand shape in 3 steps?


Find your hand shape dimensions by measuring your finger length (fl), palm breadth (pb) and palm length (pl) as indicated by the hand at the top of the picture.


Calculate the three proportional RATIOS for your 3 hand shape dimensions as follows:

– RATIO 1: fl/pl = finger length versus palm length ratio
– RATIO 2: fl/pb = finger length versus palm breadth ratio
– RATIO 3: pl/pb = palm length versus palm breadth ratio

Then you can find the RATIO-SIGN (in terms of ‘+’ and ‘-‘ signs) for each ratio in the center-part of the picture.


The three RATIO-SIGNS together represent your ‘hand shape profile’: in the bottom part of the picture above you can find out in which category of the elemental hand shape types your hands are.

Suggestions for further reading about how to recognize & interpretate the Earth hand shape, Fire hand shape, Air hand shape & Water hand shape …


Finger length proportions & hand shapes!


Healing hands! 

A new study revealed how hand shape can be identified via measurements on 3 hand dimensions, including: finger length, palm width & palm length.

The study points out that each of the so-called ‘elemental hand shapes’ (earth hand shape, fire hand shape, air hand shape, and water hand shape) can be recognized by it’s proportions relative to each other.

The picture above demonstrates how your hand shape can be identified via the ‘hand shape profile’ – which concerns a code with three elements involved, where the combination reveals the (elemental) hand shape type.

More details are discussed in the article: 

Finger length proportions & elemental hand shapes!

A male hand + a female hand.

Hand shape varies between the two sexes: males typically have larger, relatively broader hands, while females typically have smaller, relatively narrower hands. But hand shape also varies among the various populations around the world: in Asia the avarage hand shape is relatively narrower than in European & North American countries. And there is even a link between hand shape & intelligence!

But in order to understand these patterns properly, one first has to understand the relations ship between hand shape & body length. Because in general, all longer populations in the world (males, Europeans & North Americans) typically display a relatively broad hand shape, while all small populations (females, Asians) typically display a relatively narrow hand shape.


A good measure to describe the shape of the hand is the so-called ‘hand index’, which is defined as the ratio between the ‘hand width’ (= palm width measured at the metacapals) vs. the ‘hand length’ (= the distance between the tip of the middle finger and the distal wrist crease).

The average ‘hand index’ in human kind is close to 0.44, and is typically much higher than the ‘hand index’ seen in primates, which is typically (far) below 0.40 (though in gorillas – the largest of all primate species – the ‘hand index’ is higher than 0.40).

NOTICE: Finger length can also be measured relative to ‘hand length’ & ‘hand width’, but that topic will be discussed later.


In males the ‘hand index’ is typically higher than 0.44, and measures above 0.45 are often seen. While in females the ‘hand index’ is typically lower than 0.44, and measures below 0.43 are not rare at all. These sexe differences are for a large part the result of the body height differences between males and females.


The average ‘hand index’ among the various races differs significantly, and is typically lower among asians. In people from China does not vary a lot from the average of human kind, but among for example people from Japan & India the ‘hand index’ is typically close to 0.43 or even lower. At least partly these differences are explained by racial differences in body height.


A high hand index typically correlates with a low IQ. And this link between hand shape & IQ has been confirmed in quite a few studies among various types of populations.

In a 1980 study in the former Yugoslavia reported among 540 men a negative correlation between hand index & all 10 measures for IQ.

And the two most common causes for mental retardation (Down syndrome & fragile-X syndrome) are known for having typically a relatively broad hand (= high hand index).

Regarding the sexe differences, one has to be aware of the earlier mentioned point that tall populations typically have a higher ‘hand index’. The fact that women have a lower ‘hand index’ compared to men, is largely neutralized by the fact that women are smaller than men. And therefore there one should not associate this sexe difference with IQ differences among the sexes (because so far there is no evidence for that at all).

And finally there is evidence that when the ‘hand index’ is corrected for body height, then this appears to explain a significant part of the IQ differences that are typically seen between the nations of the world. Though this issue has not been studied thoroughly.


The above describes patterns for hand shape implicate that regarding the implications of a high or low ‘hand index’ indivuals, one always has to consider sexe & race before jumping into conclusions!

Time for a hand shape palm reading… what is your ‘hand index’?

What discriminates ‘Multi-Perspective Palm Reading’ from all other approaches in the field of hand reading?

Multi-Perspective Palm Reading is a new type of hand reading that is rising from scientific research reports that relate to the hand as a ‘diagnostic tool’. The unique characteristic of this advanced type of palm reading is that it only includes hand markers which have been confirmed to have significant value according scientific studies. So this NEXT NATURE variant of ‘palmistry’ is not connected anyhow with astrology nor any other philosophic system.

In Multi-Perspective Palm Reading is the hand studied from 7 different perspectives in order to make an assessment for various specified themes – which can result in either a confirming- or prognostic ‘hand-diagnosis’.

The philosophy behind Multi-Perspective Palm Reading:

The philosophy behind this new advanced type of hand reading can be described as follows:

“In Multi-Perspective Palm Reading, a reliable hand-diagnosis is only possible when a pair of hands displays ‘diagnostic clues’ in MULTIPLE perspectives of the hand. According Multi-Perspective Palm Reading a person typically requires to have ‘diagnostic clues’ in at least 3 perspectives of his/her hands, before one can speak of a solid, specified hand-diagnosis.

The application of this philosophy in the practice for making a hand assessment can be understood by studying the role of the simian line in hand diagnostics. In the 20th century the simian line (the most well known of all palm line variations: a.k.a. the single palmar transverse crease or simian crease) became known as a diagnostic marker for Down syndrome. However, during the past decades this uncommon hand marker was recognized as a ‘minor physical anomaly’ that has diagnostic value for other syndromes, diseases & developmental problems. But in order to specify it’s significance as a major hand line for the individual that has this characteristic in one or both hands, a study of the other perspectives of the hand is required!

The 7 perspectives used in Multi-Perspective Palm Reading:

In the following seven perspectives are required to be studied in order to make a thorough hand assessment:

1 – Palm Reading & the HAND SHAPE, including e.g.: hand index, palm shape, hand length, hand breath.

2 – Palm Reading & the FINGERNAILS, including e.g.: color, morphology, structure, growth.

3 – Palm Reading & FINGER MORPHOLOGY, including e.g.: finger length, 2D:4D ratio, variations in shape & width.

4 – Palm Reading & the MAJOR LINES, including e.g.: primary creases, secundary creases, tertairy creases & accessory lines.

5 – Palm Reading & the DERMATOGLYPHICS, including e.g.: fingerprints, palmar dermatoglyphics.

6 – Palm Reading & SKIN QUALITY, including e.g.: colour, structure, flexure / tone.

7 – Palm Reading & HAND MOTORICS, including e.g.: flexibility, motoric hand index.

Read more about how Multi-Perspective Palm Reading varies from other types of hand reading & modern palmistry via the Wikipedia section: Modern Palmistry: science & criticism

Just another concept of how various types IQ could relate to the fingers...?

The previous post introduced Dermatoglyphics Multiple Intelligence Test (DMIT) – which e.g. describes how various aspects of intelligence could relate to the 10 individual fingers & the brain lobes. Unfortunately there appears to be no (academic) scientific evidence available which confirms the validity of the DMIT-model. But there appears to be multiple evidence available which does confirm that various hand features do provide clues to the general intelligence – specified to the intelligence quotient (IQ)!

In the next 3 posts a quick introduction to how various hand dimensions correlate with IQ, starting with: hand shape.


The two most common causes of a mental retardation (Down syndrome + fragile X-sydrome) are typically featured with relatively broad palm. This typically results in a high ‘hand index’: > 47. 

NOTICE: The ‘hand index’ is defined as: 100 x the quotient of the palm width and the hand length. A ‘hand index’ of 0.47 or higher could be described as high, because far most international ‘hand index’ studies so far indicate that the average varies from 42 to 0.46 (Japanese males: 43.1, American males: 46; Japanese females: 42.3, American females: 43.7). 

So, one could expect that a low ‘hand index’ could provide a clue to a high IQ. But one should be very aware of the fact that the ‘hand index’ varies among men (higher) and women (lower), and among ethnic populations (lower in asians, higher in caucasians).

Interestingly… a 1980 Zagreb study on a large sample of males (N=540) has pointed out that ‘hand width’ does correlate negative with IQ (confirmed at all 10 IQ measures involved in the study). The study also reported that ‘hand length’ did not correlate with IQ – some of the dimensions produced very small positive correlations, which raises the question whether ‘hand index’ would have produced more signficant results than ‘hand width’.

NOTICE: The 1980 study also reveal that all 10 IQ measures produced positive correlations which ‘body height’ – a result which has been confirmed by many studies.

The picture below demonstrates how to measure ‘hand width’: in scientific studies this is always done at the position of the metacarpals (0ne could use the starting point of the life line as an easy identifyable point of reference).

And hand length is measure from the distal wrist crease to the tip of the middle finger. 

27 Characteristics of the hand in Down syndrome (trisomy 21).

Phantom picture of the hand in Down syndrome!

In 1963 L.S. Penrose presented the first ‘phantom picture’ describing the typical hand characteristics in Down syndrome. More detailed ‘phantom pictures’ were presented by Schaumann & Alter (1976), Rodewald (1981). This month (2010) a more detailed updated version of the visualisation became available – featuring 27 characteristics of the hand in Down’s syndrome!

What are the most common hand characteristics in Down syndrome?

A common characteristic is the presence of the famous ‘simian line‘; an alternative is the presence of a Sydney line.

Here one should especially notice the hypothenar zone of the hand (in palmistry a.k.a. ‘mount of moon’); usually this zone a large ‘ulnar loop’ pattern combined with a high positioned palmar axial triradius.

Short fingers (thumb and pinky finger are often abnormally short) + a square shaped palm.

NOTICE: The author of the new ‘phantom picture’ for Down syndrome described a specific guideline which states that in all cases of Down syndrome certain combinations of the 27 characteristics are found in both the fingers AND the palm of the hand!

More details available at:
How to use the famous ‘single palmar crease’ (a.k.a. simian line) as a marker in hand diagnostics!

Photo: example of a baby hand in Down syndrome

Example of a baby hand in Down syndrome (trisomy 21).

Deceptive fingers? - A new milestone in finger length research!

Deceptive fingers? - A new milestone in finger length research!

Is the 2D:4D finger ratio research misleading?

Czech researchers claim to have found that “previously published results on the 2D:4D ratio are biased by its covariation with finger length”. What are the implications?

Popular magazines in The Netherlands & Germany have picked-up the scoop with tempting titles such as: ‘Finger ratio is misleading’ and ‘Deceptive finger’. But the truth appears to be that those titles could be more misleading: for, likely the new research describes a new milestone in the digit ratio research!

The Czech researchers presented their new research under the title: ‘differences in the 2nd to 4th digit length ratio in humans reflect shifts along the common allometric line‘ – and in the publication they describe the following about their finger findings:

“Sexual differences in 2D : 4D are mainly caused by the shift along the common allometric line with non-zero intercept, which means 2D : 4D necessarily decreases with increasing finger length, and the fact that men have longer fingers than women.”

“We do not claim that the previous results for the finger length ratio are wrong”

“We conclude that previously published results on the 2D : 4D ratio are biased by its covariation with finger length. We strongly recommend regression-based approaches for comparisons of hand shape among different groups.”