Do you have a radial loop fingerprint? In people who have radial loop fingerprints these are usually spotted on the index finger(s); in the field of hand reading it is a common beliew to associate radial loops with ‘people who do not go with the flow’ – refering to the fact that the radial loop represents sort of the opposite of the much more common ulnar loops. But what are the facts and how do they develop?

The latest research points out that a radial loops might have a connection with the Big Five personality dimension Extraverion (see picture below).

This article presents 10 facts about radial loops:
http://www.handresearch.com/news/10-facts-about-radial-loop-fingerprints.htm

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Sweat drops in the pores of the skin ridges (dermatoglyphs)

Many people sometimes wonder about the function of their ‘fingerprints’. Why do we have them? The answer is foundstarts in the sweat pores!

As you probably know, the whole body is featured with sweat pores (featured with eccrine sweat glands) – except for the lips & the sexual organs.
 
But in the hands & the feet the sweat pores have a highly specialized role. Because in the inner palm and on the sole the sweat pores manifest on so-called ‘friction ridge skin’ – the so-called skin ridges (see the picture above) that became especially known in the perspective of the fingerprints.
 
Skin ridges & grooves!
 
In the skin ridges the sweat pores are found – in a fingerprint the ridges manifest as the ‘black lines’ and in a high quality fingerprint one can sometimes even see the sweat fore: see the picture below!
 
The surrounding ‘grooves’ serve as a transport channel to distribute the sweat through the hands & feet. And the combination of these element prevent our hands & feet to become ‘slippy’!
 
Because skin friction arises from the interaction between the sweat & the skin of the body, and is directly related to the area of the surface of the body that is in contact with the fluid. An important feature in order to have effective ‘grip’ in your hands!
 
“But keep your head cool, otherwise your sweat glands will start produce too much moisture resulting in a reduced grasp stability!”
 
 
Learn more about the life in the skin of your hand:

Discover 20 skin-facts you didn’t know – including hands, fingerprints & dermatoglyphics!

 

Walt Disney (1901-1966)

Walt Disney became famous for his influence in the field of entertainment during the 20th century. The corporation he co-founded, now known as The Walt Disney Company, today has annual revenues of approximately U.S. $35 billion. Donald Duck and Mickey Mouse belong to his world famous creatures. Today you can also meet them at Disney World!

Interestingly, his fingerprints reveal that this exceptionally creative genius had a very rare  fingerprint pattern on his right forefinger:  a Central Pocket Loop Type Whorl pattern (CM).

Via the high-r version of Walt Disney’s fingerprints you can study the details!

 More famous hands & fingerprints!

Walt Disney’s fingerprints:

Walt Disney's fingerprints.

A cave in Mongolia.

Fingerprints found in Mongolian cave made during the ‘Paleolithic Period’.

More historical fingerprints news!

After French argeologists found last summer the ‘oldest’ portrait in the history of mankind in French caves (from 32,000 years ago), recently archeologists have discovered 6,000-year-old fingerprints & paintings in a cave in Mongolia.

A Bernama report (from Malaysian News Agency) describes:

“Chinese archeologists have discovered two 6,000-year-old sites with coloured cave paintings and fingerprints in a mountain in north China’s Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Xinhua news agency reports Thursday.

Wang Dafang, an official with the Inner Mongolia Cultural Bureau, said the paintings from the Paleolithic Period were discovered in two caves on Yabrai Mountain on the edge of the world’s fourth largest desert, Badain Jaran, in Araxan League.

Archeologists believe the fingerprints were painted with mixed dyestuff of ochre powder, animal blood and water. Painters may have used bone pipes to blow the dyestuff onto the cave walls. Wang said three other sites of Paleolithic cave paintings with fingerprints had been found in Araxan.

“The cave environment, the painting style and the dyestuff used for the paintings here are similar to European Paleolithic cave paintings,” Wang said.

He added the cave paintings in Araxan have been badly damaged by weathering and rain water erosion. Except for the fingerprints, no drawings can be made out”

SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER READING:
The evolution of the human hand!
The oldest portrait of man – it’s a handprint!
Handprints indicate: many European cave artists were female!
More news about fingerprints!

DERMATOGLYPHICS: An introduction to the dermatoglyphs of the human hand.

Dermatoglyphics – a moment of science!

The word ‘dermatoglyphics‘ was first coined by Harold Cummins in 1926, and refers to the study of the characteristics in the skin ridges of the hands and the feet. What are the most common dermatoglyphic characteristics?

FINGERPRINTS:

In most populations around the world is the ‘ulnar loop’ the most observed fingerprint pattern (see: the fingerprint of the pinky finger in the picture above). Loops are most frequently found on the little finger (and middle finger); loops are least frequently found on the pointer finger.
In some Asian populations the ‘whorl’ (see: the fingerprint of the ring finger in the picture above) is more common than the ‘ulnar loop’. Whorls are more often seen on the thumb and ring finger.
In population research usually the pointer finger demonstrates more variation than the the other fingers. For example the most common ‘ulnar loop’ is least often seen on the pointer finger, which often exhibits an other pattern such as: the ‘arch’, ‘tented arch’, ‘whorl’ or ‘radial loop’ (see: the pointer finger in the picture above).

PALMAR DERMATOGLYPHICS:

The variations in the dermatoglyphics of the handpalm are much more complex than the variations in the fingerprints. An important element concerns the presence of the ‘palmar triradii’ (see: a, b, c, d, and t in the picture above): normally each finger is featured with a palmar triradius – triradius t belongs to the thumb (the thumb mouse – a.k.a. as the ‘thenar’, or in palmistry: ‘mount of Venus’ could be recognized as the third phalange of the thumb).
However, the number of palmar triradii varies with the presence of palmar ‘loops’ (or: palmar ‘whorls’). Usually the link between the number of fingers (D = digits), palmar triradii (T) and palmar loops (L) can be described with the following formula, which is known as the Penrose topological formula (Lionel Penrose, 1965):

T = L + D – 1

More details available via:
The history of research in fingerprints & dermatoglyphics – a review!

Picture: example of a normal pattern of dermatoglypics [NOTICE: If the ‘c-line’ is ending between the ring- and middle finger it always creates a palmar ‘loop’, which implicates that the author of the picture has missed 6th palmar triradius between/below the c and d triradius]

Palmar dermatoglyphics.

Primate hands: the hand of a macaque!

Primate hands: the hand of a macaque!

‘Whorls’ are a common features in the hands of many primate species!

What are the major differences between the hands of primate species and the human?

• 1 – Primates usually have a shorter thumb than humans – the thumb of the macaque (see photo on the left) does not rearch out behond the distal border of the handpalm.

• 2 – Primates usually have a lower ‘2D:4D digit ratio’ than humans – the hand of the macaque is featured with a much longer ring finger (digit 4) than the pointer finger (digit 2).

• 3 – Primates usually have more fingerprint- and palmar whorls than humans – the hand of the macaque is featured with 5 palmar whorls.

• 4 – Primates always have a lower ‘ridge density’ than humans.

• 5 – Primates usually have (various) palmar transversal creases, a.k.a. ‘simian lines’ – the hand of the macaque has one ‘simian line’.

SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER READING:
The Monkey Palmist!
Fingerprints, toeprints, and … tailprints?
Understanding our past: the human hand vs. the primate hand!
Hands in the perspective of evolution!
Weird stories about hands & evolution!

PHOTO: Impression from the back of the hand of a macaque:
Impression from the back of the hand of a macaque.

Example of a left hand with a 'whorl' on the mount of Moon (hypothenar).

New research links the ‘Moon whorl’ with autism! (On top of Down syndrome & schizophrenia)

In 1892, Sir Francis Galton published his highly influential book, ‘Finger Prints’ in which he described his classification system based on the number of triradii. On of the 3 most well-known fingerprint types is the ‘whorl’ (next to the ‘loop’ and ‘arch’), which is often found on the fingertips – but rarely found on the hypothenar (in palistry: ‘mount of Moon’)!

What was already known about the ‘hypothenar whorl’?

Quote from the article:

“While the classic palmistry literature describes that the ‘hypothenar whorl’ (a.k.a. ‘whorl on mount of Moon’) can be recognized as a sign for finding a ‘highly imaginative person’, various scientific studies have indicated that dermatoglyphic whorls on the mount of moon are linked with Down’s syndrome + a few other medical problems.”

NEW RESEARCH FINDING ON AUTISM!

Another quote from the article:

“A study on the hands of 30 people with autism (25 men, 5 women) revealed a surprizing high percentage of a specific (very rare) variant of the ‘hypothenar whorl’ – the ‘hypothenar composite whorl’.”

Some examples of the ‘hypothenar composite whorl’ are presented below.
3 Examples of a variant of the 'hypothenar whorl': the 'hypothenar composite whorl'.

In the perspective of the fact that in the science of fingerprints the ‘composite whorl’ is related to the ‘double loop’, it is interesting to notice here that the new finding relates to an earlier reported finding which pointed out that the hands of people with autism are often featured with a ‘double loop’ in the fingerprint of the pinky finger and the presence of 2 palmar loops below that 5th finger.

In cases you’re interested to learn more about the basics of fingerprint classification – the illustration below describes the 8 most common types of fingerprints (including: 2 ‘arch’ variants, 2 ‘loop’ variants, and 4 ‘whorl’ variants).

NOTICE: The ‘composite whorl’ whorl does not belong to the 8 basic fingerprint types (the name ‘double loop whorl’ in the picture below is traditionally described as a ‘double loop’).

The 8 basic fingerprints types.

SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER READING:

How fingerprinting works!
Forensic experts say: ‘fingerprints reveal more’!
A historical review of research on dermatoglyphics!

Did God leave his gigantic fingerprint on planet Mars?

An impression from Mars.

‘Fingerprint of God’?

Earlier this year (april) NASA reported a Chandra X-ray observatory including a ghostly blue cloud that resembled a hand with outstretched fingers grasping a ball of fire – the media were joking amused: It’s the hand of God!. In the first week of september NASA reported another phenomenon found on planet Mars: a striking range of dunes and craters (see also the photo below) that appears to form a giant cosmic fingerprint on the surface of the Red Planet.

Scientists believe the undulating ground reveals global climate changes that took place on Mars over the past few million years.

The area is in the Coprates region, a large trough that forms part of the Valles Marineris – a system of canyons stretching thousands of miles along Mars’ equator.

The whitish areas could be evaporites – mineral sediments left behind when salt water evaporates. Such deposits would be of great interest as they indicate potential habitats for past martian life.

The detailed image is just one of thousands of pictures recently unveiled taken by Nasa’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The images were collected using a High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera during more than 1,500 telescopic observations.

Each full image from HiRISE, taken between April and August last year, covers a strip of Martian ground six kilometers (3.7 miles) wide, showing details as small as one metre, or yard, across. They are the most detailed pictures of the Red Planet’s surface taken from space.

SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER READING:
Evolutionary hand analysis!
A NASA report from the cosmos: the hand of God!
Hosanna… a Palm Sunday hand reading!
Why God made five fingers for each hand!

A close up shot of gullies at the edge of the Hale Crater on the red planet Mars:

Michael Jackson's hand glove.

Planet Mars:

Planet Mars.

Research says: human skin is like rubber, fingerprint ridges do not enhance hand grip!

Research says: human skin is like rubber, fingerprint ridges do not enhance hand grip!

Skin is like rubber, fingerprints do not enhance hand grip:

The role of the skin on our fingertips, palm and soles of the feet is to grip other objects, and they all have characteristic “friction” ridges. Nevertheless, very little research has been carried out about how well fingers perform, how friction is achieved and why we have soft fingerpads with fingerprints at all. Recent research carried out in the laboratory of the University of Manchester suggests that finger skin has frictional properties rather like rubber.

Why do we have fingerprints?

The most likely possible answers are:

1) Fingerprints may increase friction on rough materials;
2) Fingerprints may increase friction on wet surfaces by channeling away water like a car tyre;
3) Fingerprints may help prevent blistering by allowing shear of the skin.

New British research indicates that the first option can be deleted from the list. Researcher Dr. Roland Ennos explains his findings below:

Dr Roland Ennos describes why fingerprints do not enhance hand grip.

“I have been thinking about this for years and, having played around with it for a bit, realised that skin is rubbery so the ridges in fingerprints might actually reduce grip.

Our experiments – using a plastic cup, weights and strips of Perspex (acrylic glass) to develop a simple machine in the lab – proved me right.

The experiment was so simple, this discovery could have been made 100 years ago; but scientists make assumptions and tend to look at complicated things instead.

We are now testing that theory and two others, that fingerprints improve grip on rough surfaces and that they increase sensitivity.

There are potential spin-offs for this work. For example some people who suffer nerve damage that prevents sweating have slippery fingers and cannot grip: we could develop something to treat that.”

LEARN MORE ABOUT FINGERPRINTS:
Fingerprints reveal identity, drugs & lifestyle!
Do identical twins have identical fingerprints?
Fingerprints unlikely increase hand grip friction!
Research: fingerprints are unlikely to increase ‘grip’ to our hands!
More finger news!

Le pouce by César Baldaccini: an ode to the thumb!

Le pouce by César Baldaccini: an ode to the thumb!

César Baldaccini presents ‘le pouce’: an ode to the human thumb:

When you go to Paris, you really should not forget to pay a visit at ‘La Défense quarter’, the modern business area of the French capital city.

One of the many art masterpieces in Paris is called ‘Le pouce’ (the thumb), which was made by one of the most famous French sculptors: César Baldaccini (1921-1998).

César made ‘the thumb’ in 1965, his sculpture weighs 18 tons and is 12 meter high, and includes at the backside… César’s gigantic fingerprint! The estimated value of César’s masterpiece is close to 1 million euros.

In the summer of 2008 one hundred works of César Baldaccini were exhibited from early July till the end of october at ‘la Fondation Cartier’ for Contemporary Art, featured by Jean Nouvel, architect of the building and friend of the famous sculptor.

The visitors were able to discover many of César’s famous thumbs, made by the artist with various materials including: bronze, Baccarat crystal, stainless steel, aluminum and pink marble.

Le pouce (the thumb) by César Baldaccini was presented in Paris at 'la Fondation Cartier' (2008).

MORE THUMB ART & SCIENCE:
An ode to the thumb – a sculpture by César Baldaccini!
Hands & art: thumb, finger & hand sculptures!
The thumb: the basic difference between males & females!
Palmistry reports about the thumb & other fingers!
Finger length reports beyond the thumb!