Most of us have fingerprints, but some people are born with missing fingerprints. Only four families around the world are known to have been born with this disorder – a disease called ‘adermatoglyphia’. Recently dermatologists have found adermatoglyphia in a Swiss family – 9 out of 16 members have no fingerprints – is caused by a smaller version of a gene called SMARCAD1!

Almost every person is born with fingerprints, and everyone’s are unique. In an effort to find the cause of the disease, dermatologist Eli Sprecher sequenced the DNA of 16 members of one family with adermatoglyphia in Switzerland. Seven had normal fingerprints, and the other nine did not. After investigating a number of genes to find evidence of mutation, the researchers came up empty-handed—until a grad student finally found the culprit, a smaller version of a gene called SMARCAD1

The larger SMARCAD1 is expressed throughout the body, but the smaller form acts only on the skin. Sure enough, the nine family members with no fingerprints had mutations in that gene.

Being born without fingerprints doesn’t occur simply because one gene has been turned on or off, Sprecher said. Rather, the mutation causes copies of the SMARCAD1 gene to be unstable.


Full story about missing fingerprints in a Swiss family:

Missing fingerprints in a Swiss family caused by SMARCAD1 gene!

Advertisements

When U.S supercop Bill Bratton and wife Rikki were pictured in The Mail on Sunday last week, her elegantly manicured fingers were lightly – but oh so firmly – resting upon her handsome husband’s torso.

And a little research reveals that in almost every photograph taken of the couple, TV personality Rikki has adopted a similar pose.

Bill is the charismatic policeman credited with reversing America’s crime epidemic – and the fact that Rikki is his fourth wife is perhaps a clue to the significance of her sub-conscious hand signals.

Because body-language expert Judi James says the pose is classically adopted by women everywhere to send a hands-off gesture to any rivals who may be interested in their man.

‘This is a possessive barrier gesture,’ explains James. ‘Although it is a sign of affection, principally it is a signal to other females, who may be potential rivals.

‘Basically, what the woman is communicating to others is, “I’ve got him – hands off.” ’

It’s a tactic that doesn’t work with all men, warns James. So The Mail on Sunday set about finding the stars who use the hands-off hand signal to most effect .  .  . with surprising results.

Via: Emily Hill

A few more ‘hands off, he’s mine’ celebrity-pair examples, including: Angelina Jolie & Brad Pitt, Victoria & David Beckham, J-Lo & Marc Anthony, Katie Holmes & Tom Cruise, Katy Perry & Russell Brand, Emma Thompson & Greg Wise, and Megan Fox & Brian Austin:

 

– ANGELINA JOLIE & BRAD PITT –

– VICTORIA & DAVID BECKHAM –

– J-LO & MARC ANTHONY –

– KATIE HOLMES & TOM CRUISE –

– KATY PERRY & RUSSELL BRAND –

– EMMA THOMPSON & GREG WISE –

MEGAN FOX & BRIAN AUSTIN –

Finger length ratio predicts penis length!

JULY 4, 2011 – Finally… researchers in Korea think that they found the long awaited proof: finger length can predict penis length! Korean researchers at the In Ho Choi of Gacheon University Gil Hospital, have presented results in a sample of urological patients which indicate that in men with a low ‘2D:4D finger ratio‘ more often is featured with a long phallus (compared to men with a high ‘digit ratio’).

The researchers from Korea found that the ratio between the pointer finger & ring figner (2nd and 4th digits) on men’s right hand correlate to the length of his flaccid and stretched phallus (not errected). A lower index-to-ring finger length ratio indicates a longer (stretched) penis.

NOTICE: The table below is taken from the scientific article; it e.g. illustrates that likewise results were found for body length and penis length – for the ‘flaccid condition’ the result for body height were slightly higher than for the 2D:4D digit ratio, but in the ‘stretched condition’ finger length ratio was a better predictor for penis length!

The key to this relationship between penis size & finger length likely lies in the womb, a team member added:

“During the fetal period, high concentrations of testosterone lead to high testicular activity, resulting in a lower digit ratio, in the present study, patients with a lower digit ratio tended to have a longer stretched penile length.”

The researchers also added that the length of the stretched and flaccid penis does show “a strong correlation” with an erect penile length.

The Korean report was published on july 4 in the Asian Journal of Andrology, and the scientific article is available at Nature.com.


NO SURPRIZING RESULTS!

Finger names in Korean language.

Actually, the Korean results are not surprizing at all. Because British professor John Manning had already pointed out in his second book ‘The Finger Book (2008) that a study in the Naval and Veteran’s Hospital of Athens (Greece, 2002) had pointed out that the length of the index finger correlates with the length, glans & volume of the penis.

Manning commented (in ‘The Finger Book’):

“Spyropoulos and his collegues did not measure the remaining fingers, so we cannot be sure of their relationship to penis length. My guess is that they would have found the ring finger the strongest predictor, and that long ring fingers in relation to index fingers would be associated with longer penises.”

So, the 2011 Korean study shows ‘finger professor’ John Manning was right… again!


MORE ABOUT THE SCIENCE OF FINGERS: 

48 Reports about the 2D:4D finger length ratio!

The X-Finger is developed by Dan Didrick (Didrick Medical Inc.) and it has been presented as the world’s first active-function artificial finger assembly designed specifically for partial finger amputees. This finger device provides users to regain complete control of the flexion and extension movements with an artificial finger in a self-contained device.  The X-Finger wass designed to bend a silicone finger sheath in a very realistic manner.

Dan Didrick was motivated in part by a desire to help a hearing-impaired person regain sign language ability after losing fingers. He whittled his first concept prototype out of pine wood.

Then he began using 3D design software to refine his landmark invention. Eight years after initial sketches, hundreds of X-Fingers are in use today, and Didrick Medical has also produced X-Thumbs.

It appears that there is a big demand for these simple X-finger devices. Because according U.S. Bureau of Labor data, every year about 8,000 work-related amputations occur involving one or more fingers.


Read more about more ‘bionic hand’ milestones:

http://www.handresearch.com/news/bionic-hands-prosthetics-i-limb-saeboflex-fluidhand.htm

Marfan syndrome can be understood as a connective tissue disorder – which relates to the tissue that strengthens the body. The syndrome is usually featured with a tall, slender body with long limbs & extremely long, thin fingers & toes. The most serious complications are the defects of the heart valves and the aorta, which could lead to an aortic rupture (due to too much stress on the aorta), which is usually fatal. But many people who have this disorder are not aware of it! This is partly because Marfan syndrome typically becomes manifest only after the age of 5. But there are many hand signs that have a highly reliable diagnostic value!

Marfan syndrome is featured with many typical hand characteristics, however a combination of two specific hands signs related to a long hand shape (hand signs) & hand motorics (joint hypermobility) is often enough to identify the disorder.

The Steinberg sign & Walker-Murdoch sign.

THE STEINBERG SIGN (a):

This test is used for the clinical evaluation of Marfan patients.

Procedure:
Instruct the patient to fold his thumb into the closed fist. This test is positive if the thumb tip extends from palm of hand (see figure a).

THE WALKER-MURDOCH SIGN (b):

This test is used for the evaluation of patients with Marfan syndrome.

Procedure:
Instruct the patient to grip his wrist with his opposite hand. If thumb and fifth finger of the hand overlap with each other, this represents a positive Walker-Murdoch sign (see figure b).


JOINT HYPERMOBILITY

How to check if a person has hypermobility? You can check this easily by doing the 5 tests that are included in the so-called ‘Beighton score‘: see figure 1.

A ‘Beighton score’ of 4 or above usually indicates hypermobility.

And if a person has the Sternberg sign + Walker-Murdoch sign + hypermobility, the chances are above 90% that the person has Marfan syndrome.

The presence of other related hand markers such as: skin quality (hyperextensiblity), a simian crease, extra digital transverse creases, or a high positioned axial triradius provide other significant hand signs which are indicative for a person to have a medical test for Marfan syndrome.

A typical 'Marfan' hand gesture!

A male hand + a female hand.

Hand shape varies between the two sexes: males typically have larger, relatively broader hands, while females typically have smaller, relatively narrower hands. But hand shape also varies among the various populations around the world: in Asia the avarage hand shape is relatively narrower than in European & North American countries. And there is even a link between hand shape & intelligence!

But in order to understand these patterns properly, one first has to understand the relations ship between hand shape & body length. Because in general, all longer populations in the world (males, Europeans & North Americans) typically display a relatively broad hand shape, while all small populations (females, Asians) typically display a relatively narrow hand shape.



HAND INDEX:

A good measure to describe the shape of the hand is the so-called ‘hand index’, which is defined as the ratio between the ‘hand width’ (= palm width measured at the metacapals) vs. the ‘hand length’ (= the distance between the tip of the middle finger and the distal wrist crease).

The average ‘hand index’ in human kind is close to 0.44, and is typically much higher than the ‘hand index’ seen in primates, which is typically (far) below 0.40 (though in gorillas – the largest of all primate species – the ‘hand index’ is higher than 0.40).

NOTICE: Finger length can also be measured relative to ‘hand length’ & ‘hand width’, but that topic will be discussed later.






HAND SHAPE & SEXE:

In males the ‘hand index’ is typically higher than 0.44, and measures above 0.45 are often seen. While in females the ‘hand index’ is typically lower than 0.44, and measures below 0.43 are not rare at all. These sexe differences are for a large part the result of the body height differences between males and females.


HAND SHAPE & RACE:

The average ‘hand index’ among the various races differs significantly, and is typically lower among asians. In people from China does not vary a lot from the average of human kind, but among for example people from Japan & India the ‘hand index’ is typically close to 0.43 or even lower. At least partly these differences are explained by racial differences in body height.


HAND SHAPE & IQ:

A high hand index typically correlates with a low IQ. And this link between hand shape & IQ has been confirmed in quite a few studies among various types of populations.

In a 1980 study in the former Yugoslavia reported among 540 men a negative correlation between hand index & all 10 measures for IQ.

And the two most common causes for mental retardation (Down syndrome & fragile-X syndrome) are known for having typically a relatively broad hand (= high hand index).

Regarding the sexe differences, one has to be aware of the earlier mentioned point that tall populations typically have a higher ‘hand index’. The fact that women have a lower ‘hand index’ compared to men, is largely neutralized by the fact that women are smaller than men. And therefore there one should not associate this sexe difference with IQ differences among the sexes (because so far there is no evidence for that at all).

And finally there is evidence that when the ‘hand index’ is corrected for body height, then this appears to explain a significant part of the IQ differences that are typically seen between the nations of the world. Though this issue has not been studied thoroughly.


HIGH OR LOW ‘HAND INDEX’ IN INDIVUALS:

The above describes patterns for hand shape implicate that regarding the implications of a high or low ‘hand index’ indivuals, one always has to consider sexe & race before jumping into conclusions!

Time for a hand shape palm reading… what is your ‘hand index’?

Sweat drops in the pores of the skin ridges (dermatoglyphs)

Many people sometimes wonder about the function of their ‘fingerprints’. Why do we have them? The answer is foundstarts in the sweat pores!

As you probably know, the whole body is featured with sweat pores (featured with eccrine sweat glands) – except for the lips & the sexual organs.
 
But in the hands & the feet the sweat pores have a highly specialized role. Because in the inner palm and on the sole the sweat pores manifest on so-called ‘friction ridge skin’ – the so-called skin ridges (see the picture above) that became especially known in the perspective of the fingerprints.
 
Skin ridges & grooves!
 
In the skin ridges the sweat pores are found – in a fingerprint the ridges manifest as the ‘black lines’ and in a high quality fingerprint one can sometimes even see the sweat fore: see the picture below!
 
The surrounding ‘grooves’ serve as a transport channel to distribute the sweat through the hands & feet. And the combination of these element prevent our hands & feet to become ‘slippy’!
 
Because skin friction arises from the interaction between the sweat & the skin of the body, and is directly related to the area of the surface of the body that is in contact with the fluid. An important feature in order to have effective ‘grip’ in your hands!
 
“But keep your head cool, otherwise your sweat glands will start produce too much moisture resulting in a reduced grasp stability!”
 
 
Learn more about the life in the skin of your hand:

Discover 20 skin-facts you didn’t know – including hands, fingerprints & dermatoglyphics!

 

c51

HAND SIGNAL 1:

“Get them a bottle of perfume.”

A classic story about ‘hand gestures‘ came from the formerly famous The Stork Club (1929-1965) in New York City, which became known as a famous Manhattan night club that was founded by Sherman Billingsley. The New York City hot spot — which was located on 53rd Street near Fifth Avenue — was a destination for celebrities, artists, writers and wealthy people in general. You might remember The Stork Club from an appearance in the second season of Mad Men when Don and Betty infamously attended a party hosted by Jimmy Barrett.

LIFE presents an interesting series of images of Mr. Billingsley’s body language demonstrating his own brand of nightclub-code via hand gestures [8 images].

Call me to the phone, I want to get away from this table.

HAND SIGNAL 2:

“Call me to the phone, I want to get away from this table.”
 

Get them out & don’t let them in again.HAND SIGNAL 3:

“Get them out & don’t let them in again.”

 

No check for this table. I got it.HAND SIGNAL 4:

“No check for this table. I got it.”

 

'Not important people' or 'No need to pay attention to these folks.'HAND SIGNAL 5:

“Not important people,” or, “No need to pay attention to these folks.”

 

Bring a bottle of champagne.HAND SIGNAL 6:

“Bring a bottle of champagne.”

 

Bring a round of drinks.HAND SIGNAL 7:

“Bring a round of drinks.”

 

The music in the main dining room is too loud.HAND SIGNAL 8:

“The music in the main dining room is too loud.”
 

Hand projections demonstrate how anorexia works

[tweetmeme source=”handresearch” only_single=false] Scientists at University College London asked people to put their left hands palm down under a board and judge the location of the covered hand’s knuckles and fingertips with a pointer. The results pointed out that people tend to think that their hands are wider and their fingers are shorter than they truly are. Lead researcher Dr Matthew Longo recognized how the findings may well be relevant to psychiatric conditions involving body image such as anorexia nervosa.

Susan Ringwood, chief executive of the eating disorders charity Beat, said:

“We know that one of the features of anorexia nervosa can be distorted body image. People affected can truly believe that they are grossly fat, even when they are dangerously underweight. They are able to judge other people’s bodies quite accurately and would describe someone else the same size as themselves correctly, but still not be able to do that about their own weight and shape.”

“This brain study may give some insight into how this could be possible, and could be very motivating for people with eating disorders to know that there was a biological explanation for their experiences, rather than feeling it was their fault.”

Obviously, the brain tends to make body image projections that are wider and shorter than the body (hand) really is. And women are typically known for experiencing more problems in visuo-spatial tasks!  

But there’s more known about how hands relate to anorexia… 

  

FINGER LENGTH & EATING DISORDERS!

But there is another connection between anorexia nervosa and the hand:  it’s in the length of the fingers! 

High 2d:4d digit ratio (the typically female-like finger length variant) has been associated with low levels of prental testosterone exposure AND high levels of eating disordered behaviors. Michael D. Anestis reports:

“Drive for thinness was lower in men with a lower 2D:4D ratio and drive for muscularity was higher in men with a lower 2D:4D ratio. …A lower 2D:4D ratio also predicted lower levels of eating disordered behaviors in men. …So, what do these findings tell us?  First of all, it appears that, for men as with women, a greater level of prenatal testosterone is associated with less of a drive to be thin and lower levels of eating disordered behaviors.  Additionally, a greater level of prenatal testosterone exposure appears to predict a greater drive to develop a muscular physique.” 

So, next to the brain-created body image distortions – prenatal testosterone is also involved in anorexia nervosa related eating disorders.

Please feel free to share your thoughts…             

   

SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER READING:
Is Madonna suffering on body dysmorphobia?
Fragile hand of a young girl in Uganda!
Superbabe Megan Fox learned how to live with her unusual thumbs
What your physique reveals about your health!

Will Your Man Cheat …?

[tweetmeme source=”handresearch” only_single=false] What if you could find out if your man is at a higher risk for infidelity before you married him? Dr. Phil and his panel of medical experts discuss the new science behind a cheater’s brain and what can be done if your loved one is at a higher risk. Author of Change Your Brain, Change Your Body, Dr. Daniel Amen, author of Insatiable Wives, clinical psychologist Dr. David Ley, Claremont University’s Dr. Paul Zak and author of The Male Brain, neuro-psychiatrist Dr. Louann Brizendine explain how you can discern a man’s risk for infidelity and the treatment options to lower his risk.

Dr.Phil.com presents a 4 item list of physiological indicators that your han is at a higher risk for cheating:

  • Length of ring finger compared to pointer finger: The length of a man’s ring finger is linked to testosterone in utero and during puberty. A longer ring finger means more testosterone, and the increased likelihood of a greater number of sex partners and a higher risk of cheating.

  • Facial symmetry and size of jaw: If one side of a man’s face matches the other side, is symmetrical, the more it is an indicator to women that that man has high genetic value. Men whose faces are more [symmetrical] are more likely to have more partners because more women want to have their children.
  • Size of penis: If a male is well-endowed, that means more testosterone and a higher risk of cheating.
  • Brain injuries: Men with a history of engaging in impact sports like football or martial arts, or men who’ve had a history of concussions are at a higher risk. Also, men with disorders like ADD or bipolar disorder have low pre-frontal cortex activity or hyper-frontal activity, which could mean less ability to stop impulsive behaviors, like cheating.

By the way, did you know that… Casanova had the long ring finger!

 SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER READING:
BBC Test: finger length & sex I.D.!
Finger length & Cupid’s science!
The science of gaydar: finger length & sexual preference!
What they say about men with long ring fingers!