Walt Disney (1901-1966)

Walt Disney became famous for his influence in the field of entertainment during the 20th century. The corporation he co-founded, now known as The Walt Disney Company, today has annual revenues of approximately U.S. $35 billion. Donald Duck and Mickey Mouse belong to his world famous creatures. Today you can also meet them at Disney World!

Interestingly, his fingerprints reveal that this exceptionally creative genius had a very rare  fingerprint pattern on his right forefinger:  a Central Pocket Loop Type Whorl pattern (CM).

Via the high-r version of Walt Disney’s fingerprints you can study the details!

 More famous hands & fingerprints!

Walt Disney’s fingerprints:

Walt Disney's fingerprints.


Hands event at 'Welcome Collection' (Nov 26, London)

 At November 26 the ‘Welcome Collection’ in London presents their ‘Hands’ event! How would our society look like without any hands? We sense, create and communicate with our hands. A social event for the incurably curious and celebrate these vital parts of our bodies across four floors of Wellcome Collection!!

From medicine to mesmerism, magic to mannerisms, visitors will find out about the curious history of digits, palms, fingers and thumbs, and put their own to use, as we celebrate the organs that shape the world around us. We will have scientists, artists, palmists and magicians at hand for discussions, performances and, of course, hands-on activities, all designed to make us look afresh at our body. ‘Manipulate’, ‘manoeuvre’ and ‘manufacture’ are all words deriving from the Latin word ‘manus’, meaning hand. These creative appendages allow us to make, touch and feel, but they also hold mystical and cultural significance. For one night only, visitors can explore a digital age that goes back millennia. 


• Revel in the mystery of hands with palmistry and neuroscience illusions.
• Try out some nail art.
• Get dexterous with games and computers from different ages – and paper, scissors, stone.
• Enjoy an installation produced by young people from HCA, Coram’s Fields, KCBNA and artist Elaine Duigenan.
• Try out some surgeon’s tools, and see how steady your hands are.
• Explore the wonders of handwriting in the Wellcome Library, and meet a palaeographer and a graphologist.
• Play a piano and see your digits up close.
• Enjoy the physical theatre performance of The Articulate Hand with Andrew Dawson. Performances start at 20.00 and 21.45. Tickets are available on the night of the event only.
• Hear from evolution expert Christophe Soligo on the difference between the hands of apes and humans. Tickets are available on the night of the event only.
Chris McManus will uncover the science of left and right handedness. Tickets are available on the night of the event only.

LOCATION: 183 Euston Road, London (nov 26, 19:00 – 23:00) 

It’s a FREE event, so anyone can drop in anytime!!

A discussion about more details of this ‘hands’ event is available at the Modern Hand Reading Forum.

Four example photographs of hands and arms scoring high or low on the ‘Hand Masculinity Index’: (a) High masculinity male hand; (b) low masculinity male hand; (c) high masculinity female hand; (d) low masculinity female hand.

Like faces, hands and forearms may provide cues to quality and sex-typical hormone exposure used in mate choice. Untill recently finger length (ratio) was the only measure that has been used to evaluate hand attractiveness. But last year (december 2009), L.K. Dane presented a rather surprizing Ph. D. disertation study at the University of New Mexico which provides quite a lot of new insights aboutwhat makes hands attractive for the opposite sexe!

A quick summary of the key-results:

“Men with male typical hand index scores, low 2D:4D digit ratio and high ridge counts were rated as more masculine, dominant, intelligent, healthy and as good parents. Women with feminine hands, high 2D:4D digit ratio and high ridge counts were rated as more feminine. Results were mostly consistent with similar research on faces.”

The results also confirmed that the ‘masculinity’ factor of the hands plays a major role in how attractive / appealing hands are for the other sexe. In men a positive correlation was found between ‘hand masculinity’ and both the ‘face masculinity’ and ‘face attractiveness’. In women a positive correlation was found between ‘hand masculinity” and ‘face masculinity’, while a negative correlation was found between ‘hand masculinity’ and ‘face attractiveness’.

At first sight this may sound not as a big surprize. But a fascinating aspect inside the results is that in men the correlation between ‘hand masculinty’ and ‘face attractiveness’ is even higher (more significant) than the correlation between ‘hand masculinity’and ‘face masculinity’!!

Another interesting element provided by the study is that features of the arm were observed as well:

“Within men, an analysis of separate hand and arm ratings indicated that a combination of masculine hands with less masculine forearms was most attractive.”

A re-definition of the word ‘handsome’?

The result of the study clearly illustrate how ‘masculinity’ in men appeals to women:

While women like men to have ‘masculine hands’… but women do not mind at all when a man’s body (arm + face) is a little bit less masculine than their hands are!!

Why do women have this preference?? The answer remains unclear: but maybe it is related to the fact that only the hands provide ‘genetic’ cues about sexually dimorphic characteristics (2D:4D digit ratio, fingerprints & ridge counts) that are already established before birth!

 Males vs. females: sexe differences in the hand!
Finger length & sex I.D.: find out how your mind works!
 What your physique reveals about your health!

The family tree of fingerprint types

In 1943 Cummins & Midlo presented a work which became known as the Bible of fingerprints, titled: “Finger Prints, Palms and Soles”. The book is e.g. featured with a model named: ‘a family tree of finger print types’: see the picture above.

This ‘family tree’ presents an interesting perspective on how various types of fingerprints are related. Starting with the ‘concentric whorl’ (which sort of raises associations with various phenomena – such as: a solar system in the cosmos, or force fields in the atmosphere, hair streams on the human body, etc.), progressing via the ‘loop’, and ending with the ‘simple arch’ (which raises associations with more stable, inert phenomena).

At Amazon you can order a copy of ‘Finger prints, Palms and Soles’, or another fingerprint book (such as: ‘The Science of Fingerprints’ – a FBI production). For more details about the book, see: Google books & Ed Campbell’s article ‘Fingerprints & Palmar Dermatoglyphics.

Related news reports & articles are available at:                                           Fingerprints &  dermatoglyphics news.

A cave in Mongolia.

Fingerprints found in Mongolian cave made during the ‘Paleolithic Period’.

More historical fingerprints news!

After French argeologists found last summer the ‘oldest’ portrait in the history of mankind in French caves (from 32,000 years ago), recently archeologists have discovered 6,000-year-old fingerprints & paintings in a cave in Mongolia.

A Bernama report (from Malaysian News Agency) describes:

“Chinese archeologists have discovered two 6,000-year-old sites with coloured cave paintings and fingerprints in a mountain in north China’s Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Xinhua news agency reports Thursday.

Wang Dafang, an official with the Inner Mongolia Cultural Bureau, said the paintings from the Paleolithic Period were discovered in two caves on Yabrai Mountain on the edge of the world’s fourth largest desert, Badain Jaran, in Araxan League.

Archeologists believe the fingerprints were painted with mixed dyestuff of ochre powder, animal blood and water. Painters may have used bone pipes to blow the dyestuff onto the cave walls. Wang said three other sites of Paleolithic cave paintings with fingerprints had been found in Araxan.

“The cave environment, the painting style and the dyestuff used for the paintings here are similar to European Paleolithic cave paintings,” Wang said.

He added the cave paintings in Araxan have been badly damaged by weathering and rain water erosion. Except for the fingerprints, no drawings can be made out”

The evolution of the human hand!
The oldest portrait of man – it’s a handprint!
Handprints indicate: many European cave artists were female!
More news about fingerprints!

Hands up for James Blunt!

Hands up for James Blunt – HIGH RESOLUTION PHOTO!
More hands of fame!


In 2008 the former NATO peacekeeper – who served in 1999 as a officer in the NATO deployment in Kosovo – needed an operation on the little finger on his right hand after he got mobbed by crazed fans during a stage dive at a gig in Asheville, North Carolina. It appears that his career has not shown much progress since the accident… and it appears that since then he never ‘showed’ his hand again.

Some typical characteristics of James Blunt’s hand are:

• The arch fingerprint on his pointer finger (the photo also demonstrates that he has a relatively normal small ‘ulnar loop’ fingerprint on his middle finger): James Blunt once described “fame and celebrity is something that other people have constructed that I’m not really party to” – a typical statement for ‘earth people’;

• The long ring finger (+ a slightly low 2D:4D digit ratio): a relatively common characteristic in the hand of a muscian (including: singers/performers);

• The long pinky finger: a typical characteristic for a man who appears to score pretty low on the personality dimension Extroversion;

• A strong ‘Girdle of Venus’: in modern palm reading often associated with creative sensibility;

• A rather short heartline… okay, James sings a lot about love – how about his personal life?

Anyway, what do your think… does the hand of James Blunt reveal anything about his personality? Maybe you can try the ‘Do You Like James Blunt?’ Personality Quiz.

The hand of famous musicians – including: Elvis Presley, Frédérique Chopin, Franz Lizst, Michael Jackson, Madonna & Thom Yorke

James Blunt (2007).
Hands up for James Blunt!

27 Characteristics of the hand in Fragile X syndrome (Xq27).

Phantom picture of the hand in Fragile X syndrome!

In 1986 A. Rodewald et al. presented the first ‘phantom picture’ describing the typical hand characteristics in Fragile X syndrome (e.g. hand calluses & flexible finger phalange joints). But more detailed ‘phantom pictures’ were never presented since then. This month (february 2010) a more detailed updated version of the visualisation became available – featuring 28 characteristics of the hand in Fragile’s syndrome!

What are the most common hand characteristics in Fragile X syndrome?

A common characteristic is the presence of the famous ‘simian line‘; an alternative is the presence of a Sydney line.

Here one should especially notice the fingerprints of the 3rd finger (and the 2nd + 4th finger); often these demonstrate the presence of ‘radial loop’ patterns and/or arch patterns (the normal ‘ulnar loop’ patterns are less common in Fragile X syndrome) – combined with a ‘transverse’ pattern in the palmar ridge lines in the distal palmar zone.

The palm width (hand breadth) is relatively broad, and the palm length is usually a bit short. Finger length is relatively long compared to the palm length, but slightly short compared to the palm breadth.

NOTICE: The author of the new ‘phantom picture’ for Fragilex syndrome described a specific guideline which states that in most cases of Fragile X syndrome certain combinations of the 28 characteristics are found in both the fingers AND the palm of the hand!

More details available at:
How to use the famous ‘simian crease’ as a marker in Fragile X syndrome!

Photo: example of a baby hand with hyperextensible finger joints – a common feature in Fragile X syndrome.
Example of a baby hand with hyperextensible finger joints - a common feature in Fragile X syndrome.

DERMATOGLYPHICS: An introduction to the dermatoglyphs of the human hand.

Dermatoglyphics – a moment of science!

The word ‘dermatoglyphics‘ was first coined by Harold Cummins in 1926, and refers to the study of the characteristics in the skin ridges of the hands and the feet. What are the most common dermatoglyphic characteristics?


In most populations around the world is the ‘ulnar loop’ the most observed fingerprint pattern (see: the fingerprint of the pinky finger in the picture above). Loops are most frequently found on the little finger (and middle finger); loops are least frequently found on the pointer finger.
In some Asian populations the ‘whorl’ (see: the fingerprint of the ring finger in the picture above) is more common than the ‘ulnar loop’. Whorls are more often seen on the thumb and ring finger.
In population research usually the pointer finger demonstrates more variation than the the other fingers. For example the most common ‘ulnar loop’ is least often seen on the pointer finger, which often exhibits an other pattern such as: the ‘arch’, ‘tented arch’, ‘whorl’ or ‘radial loop’ (see: the pointer finger in the picture above).


The variations in the dermatoglyphics of the handpalm are much more complex than the variations in the fingerprints. An important element concerns the presence of the ‘palmar triradii’ (see: a, b, c, d, and t in the picture above): normally each finger is featured with a palmar triradius – triradius t belongs to the thumb (the thumb mouse – a.k.a. as the ‘thenar’, or in palmistry: ‘mount of Venus’ could be recognized as the third phalange of the thumb).
However, the number of palmar triradii varies with the presence of palmar ‘loops’ (or: palmar ‘whorls’). Usually the link between the number of fingers (D = digits), palmar triradii (T) and palmar loops (L) can be described with the following formula, which is known as the Penrose topological formula (Lionel Penrose, 1965):

T = L + D – 1

More details available via:
The history of research in fingerprints & dermatoglyphics – a review!

Picture: example of a normal pattern of dermatoglypics [NOTICE: If the ‘c-line’ is ending between the ring- and middle finger it always creates a palmar ‘loop’, which implicates that the author of the picture has missed 6th palmar triradius between/below the c and d triradius]

Palmar dermatoglyphics.

Primate hands: the hand of a macaque!

Primate hands: the hand of a macaque!

‘Whorls’ are a common features in the hands of many primate species!

What are the major differences between the hands of primate species and the human?

• 1 – Primates usually have a shorter thumb than humans – the thumb of the macaque (see photo on the left) does not rearch out behond the distal border of the handpalm.

• 2 – Primates usually have a lower ‘2D:4D digit ratio’ than humans – the hand of the macaque is featured with a much longer ring finger (digit 4) than the pointer finger (digit 2).

• 3 – Primates usually have more fingerprint- and palmar whorls than humans – the hand of the macaque is featured with 5 palmar whorls.

• 4 – Primates always have a lower ‘ridge density’ than humans.

• 5 – Primates usually have (various) palmar transversal creases, a.k.a. ‘simian lines’ – the hand of the macaque has one ‘simian line’.

The Monkey Palmist!
Fingerprints, toeprints, and … tailprints?
Understanding our past: the human hand vs. the primate hand!
Hands in the perspective of evolution!
Weird stories about hands & evolution!

PHOTO: Impression from the back of the hand of a macaque:
Impression from the back of the hand of a macaque.

Example of a left hand with a 'whorl' on the mount of Moon (hypothenar).

New research links the ‘Moon whorl’ with autism! (On top of Down syndrome & schizophrenia)

In 1892, Sir Francis Galton published his highly influential book, ‘Finger Prints’ in which he described his classification system based on the number of triradii. On of the 3 most well-known fingerprint types is the ‘whorl’ (next to the ‘loop’ and ‘arch’), which is often found on the fingertips – but rarely found on the hypothenar (in palistry: ‘mount of Moon’)!

What was already known about the ‘hypothenar whorl’?

Quote from the article:

“While the classic palmistry literature describes that the ‘hypothenar whorl’ (a.k.a. ‘whorl on mount of Moon’) can be recognized as a sign for finding a ‘highly imaginative person’, various scientific studies have indicated that dermatoglyphic whorls on the mount of moon are linked with Down’s syndrome + a few other medical problems.”


Another quote from the article:

“A study on the hands of 30 people with autism (25 men, 5 women) revealed a surprizing high percentage of a specific (very rare) variant of the ‘hypothenar whorl’ – the ‘hypothenar composite whorl’.”

Some examples of the ‘hypothenar composite whorl’ are presented below.
3 Examples of a variant of the 'hypothenar whorl': the 'hypothenar composite whorl'.

In the perspective of the fact that in the science of fingerprints the ‘composite whorl’ is related to the ‘double loop’, it is interesting to notice here that the new finding relates to an earlier reported finding which pointed out that the hands of people with autism are often featured with a ‘double loop’ in the fingerprint of the pinky finger and the presence of 2 palmar loops below that 5th finger.

In cases you’re interested to learn more about the basics of fingerprint classification – the illustration below describes the 8 most common types of fingerprints (including: 2 ‘arch’ variants, 2 ‘loop’ variants, and 4 ‘whorl’ variants).

NOTICE: The ‘composite whorl’ whorl does not belong to the 8 basic fingerprint types (the name ‘double loop whorl’ in the picture below is traditionally described as a ‘double loop’).

The 8 basic fingerprints types.


How fingerprinting works!
Forensic experts say: ‘fingerprints reveal more’!
A historical review of research on dermatoglyphics!