The video ‘Evolution of the human hand’ – presents a detailed picture of how modern science perceives the evolution of the human hand in time. The video is sort of based on Darwin’s evolution theory, but the details were delevered by experts in anthropology who studied how the hand shape, finger length & palmar creases evolved during the past 1.8 million years.

The video demonstrates how the ‘early’ humanoid hands (and primates) are typically featured with 3 or more ‘complete transverse creases’ (multiple simian lines), which are positioned horizontal in the hand + two major vertical lines. While at the end of the video displays a typical human hand featured with only 2 curved, oblique positioned ‘primary palmar creases’ (heart line and head line) + one major vertical line (life line).

And the differences between the human hand and the hands of primates served as a model for the evolution of the human hand in time – see below the hands of a man compared to the hands of a baboon, orangutang & chimpanzee.

Many other fascinating details about the evolution of the human hand are described in the work of physician John Napier, titled: Hands.

Another important figure in the history of medical science was the Scottish surgeon John Hunter, who turned the attention of science from the structure of hands to it’s function:

“Structure is the intimate expression of function”

- John Hunter, Scottish surgeon (1728-1793) -


More details about the evolution of other features of the human hand are presented in the articles:

1) The evolution & mystery of the five fingers

2) The history & evolution of the palmar lines

The hand of early hominids (30.000 years old).

The hand of Neanderthals (300.000 years old).

The hand of 'Ardi' (4.4 million years old).

A 'family tree' of the major major lines.

In 2004 Chinese researchers present a new approach to study the hand lines for biometric purposes. They applied a mathematical model on hand prints and were able to identify six types of  palmar crease variations – based on the core characteristics of the three ‘major palmar lines’. Recently, in line with the Chinese research a new more advanced (PIC) model was introduced which e.g. describes 21 types of major hand line variations which are displayed in ‘a family tree of the major hand line types': see the picture above.

Interestingly, the new study reports e.g. about a correlation between the palmar lines and intelligence (IQ): left hand vs. right hand asymmetries appear to be involved, plus a lower prevalence of MPA’s – such as the simian line & Sydney line).

More details are available in the article:
What can formations in hand lines reveal?

For more information about various aspects of the palmar lines the following book is recommended:
‘Anthropology of Crease Morphogenesis’.

NOTICE: The three major palmar lines concern:

- The ‘radial longitudinal crease’, in palmistry a.k.a. the ‘life line';
– The ‘distal transversal crease’, in palmistry a.k.a. the ‘heart line';
– The ‘proximal transveral crease’, in palmistry a.k.a. the ‘head line’.

Related news reports & articles are available at:
News about the palmar creases / hand lines.

VoiceAmerica & Kenneth Lagerstrom present new radio show: Your life is in your hands!

- TRIBUTE: THE HAND LINES & PALMAR CREASES -

This week’s episode (June 1) of VoiceAmerica radioshow “Your Life is in Your Hands” was featured with the presence of UK hand analyst Lynn Seal, who talked with host Kenneth Lagerström about ‘lines of the hands’.

During the hour various aspects of the hand lines were discussed, including: the mystery of the ‘palmar flexion creases’, the prenatal development of the (major) hand lines in the early life of the embryo, line variations among ethnic populations, the differences between hand lines in the left and right hand, and how the hand lines can be used for different purposes in palmistry. Lynn explained very well that in time the hand lines can show significant changes; this simple fact might explain why the validity of ‘future predictions based on the hand lines’ are even disputed from within the palmistry community!

The podcast of the show is available at ‘Palmistry – The Lines of The Hand‘.

Let’s take a closer look on some basic characteristics of the hand lines. How can we learn to understand them properly?

In modern palm reading (cheirology) the hand lines are not used for predicting the future; contrary the hand lines are recognized as ‘energy flows’ reflecting process in the body and the brain which related the various aspects of an indvidual, including temperament, personality & and interpersonal functioning.
Palmistry: the major hand lines & palmar creases.

- HAND LINES IN THE HAND OF AN EMBRYO -

Contrary to what many believe, the development of the hand lines does not directly relate to the movements of the hands. For example, the three major hand lines (life line, heart line and hand line), start developing in the hand of the little embryo in the 2nd month of gestation – while the first hand movements do not occure before the 2nd half of the third month.

Another indication is provided by the fact that usually the ‘passive’ hand (= left hand for righthanded people) shows more hand lines then the ‘active hand’ (= right hand for righthanded people). And often the hands of people who are active in jobs that require a lot of manual work, show less palmar lines than those who are active in jobs that are not featured with the use of the hands (such as social work).

After about 7 weeks the life line starts developing in the hand of the embryo.
The hand of a 7 week old embryo.The hand of a 7 week old embryo after 48 days.

- WHAT DO THE HAND LINES REVEAL? -

Despite the fact that many palmists around the world – especially in Asia – still claim that the lines in the palm or our hands reveal information about our future, the truth is that within the global palm reading community there appears to be a growing number of debaters who actually question the validity of this claim.

While traditional palmistry has merely been a matter of using the hand as an occult ‘tool’ – focussed on making (future) ‘prediction'; in the 20th century modern palm reading became more focussed on the issue of understanding human nature, by studying the psychological- & spiritual life of individuals.

The most frequently asked question is probably: “what do my hand lines reveal?” Interestinly, the answer might actually depend on the person who is faced with this question! For example, a traditional palmist might point to your future, a modern palm reader might point of your brain, and a scientific hand analyst … might point to your genes!

14 Palmar creases: an overview of the most common hand lines.
Palmar creases: an overview of the most common hand lines.
SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER READING:
What’s the story of the notorious ‘simian crease’?
And are the ‘Sydney line’ & the ‘simian line’ related?

The Sydney line: a.k.a. an extended 'head line' or 'proximal palmar transverse crease'.

No less than exactly 40 years ago articles in the famous Time Magazine and the Lancet revealed that certain characteristics in the hand lines can signal major medical problems. A few hand facts from 1969!

The patterns of the fingerprints and the palmar lines are established by the fourth fetal month of life in the womb, when the fetus’ hand is only a few millimeters long. The more conspicuous “flexion creases” (the palmist’s “heart, head and life lines”) are formed a month or two earlier.

In normal palms, the heart and head lines are separate and distinct, and neither extends clear across the palm. However, in many victims of Down’s syndrome, prenatal rubella, childhood leukemia, and even in Alzheimer dementia, the palmar lines are replaced by a Sydney line (see picture above), or a single “simian crease” (see picture below) – characteristics which are quite normal like that on a monkey’s palm!

Source: Time Magazine

SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER READING:

The Sydney line: an underestimated hand mark!
The simian crease: a notorious hand line!
More about your hands

Deciphering the simian line.