June 25, 2011
As a research scientist, Dr. Erina Lee is responsible for the international relationships research at eHarmony. In the following article she described how to use hands in building relationships!
Whether they’re soft and manicured, strong and calloused, weathered and wrinkled—hands come in all shapes and sizes and can often say a lot about you. They can reveal the tattered fingernails of nervous nail biter, the orange fingers of a cheese puff lover, or the worn hands of a grandmother. And when you look even closer at the many lines and wrinkles, is it possible that your hands can reveal even more? Some people believe that clues to our basic selves can be found in the details of our hands. But do our hands really tell us anything of importance about who we really are? Is it possible that the numerous bumps and ridges unique to every hand hold some insight into our level of intelligence or into our love lives?
In an eternal quest for self-discovery, people have looked towards hand readers, among other mystics, to see if the lines in their hands really tell them something meaningful about themselves and their future. In current times, people turn to internet quizzes and online hand reading to make sense of the heart and life lines and the shape of their hands. Although these tests and quizes can be fun, when put to the test of empirical science, most of these claims and predictions cannot be verified. Furthermore, these uncorroborated predictions about personality traits and future events leave palm reading in the category of a pseudoscience.
Despite the inaccuracy of palmistry readings, however, there are aspects of the hands that have been studied empirically, including finger length. When looking at the palm of your hand, fingers straight together, you will likely notice a difference between your second (index) and fourth (ring) fingers. On average women have longer index fingers, compared to ring fingers while men have longer ring fingers compared to index fingers. This association between the two fingers, called the 2D:4D ratio, is related to levels of androgen exposure (a sex hormone higher in men) in the womb. That means that the amount of male hormones a fetus is exposed to determines this very specific detail of finger length in the hands. The precise mechanism by which androgen works is not entirely clear, but in general most theorists believe that increasing androgen exposure will masculinize a fetus. There is also some evidence suggesting that either too much or too little androgen can be feminizing to the fetus.
Because androgen exposure is related to sexual development and masculinization, researchers have begun to wonder if the 2D:4D ratio, as a marker of hormone exposure, may also predict other characteristics. Hormone exposure has been linked to things like general physical health, cognitive abilities, personality, job preferences, attractiveness, and sexual orientation. While the 2D:4D ratio may relate to these developmental characteristics, thus far the evidence supporting such a link is at best described as mixed. For example, there has been much attention dedicated to whether the 2D:4D ratio relates to sexual orientation. While there have been several studies in this area, some have shown no differences between heterosexual and homosexual men in their 2D:4D ratios (e.g., Williams et al., 2000), and others, like Lippa, have shown heterosexual men having lower 2D:4D ratios compared to homosexual men. Similarly with other characteristics like personality and attraction, the research findings have been fairly inconsistent.
Another aspect of the hands that have been conclusively studied are the ridges, the ones that cover the palms and fingers, the ones that make up our unique fingerprints. The study of these ridges is called dermatoglyphics. Similar to the finger length, these ridges are known to be established earlier in the embryonic development, while the fetus is still in the womb. Researchers have shown dermatoglyphic differences between non-deficient people and those with cognitive or genetic abnormalities, like schizophrenia, Down’s syndrome, and intellectual disability. For example, individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia show fewer ridges between two specific points under the second and third fingers [a-b ridge count] compared to non-schizophrenic controls (Bramon et al., 2005). These findings support the idea that changes in the prenatal environment can display its effects in multiple ways, including changes in cognitive development and ridges of the hands. However, the findings do not assume that all people with fewer ridges have cognitive deficiencies.
To summarize, we do know that specific details in our hands are affected by early hormonal exposure and other environmental influences in the womb. And we know that this early exposure also affects other aspects of our development. While it is intriguing to speculate further that details in our hands can predict aspects of our personality or behavior, these conjectures have not been empirically supported. It’s also likely that there are more direct measures of personality, intelligence, and behavioral traits rather than the hands. But even though you can’t currently rely on your hands to unlock all of your mysteries, one thing you can count on is more studies and discussion about them to come.
May 15, 2011
The BabyCenter.com has conducted a simian crease poll among parents of children who have Down syndrome.
The result confirms the significance of the simian line in Down syndrome, because 41 of the 95 participants (=43%) reported that their child has Down’s syndrome.
But the diagnostic signficance of a simian crease (simian line) is unspecific. Despite the fact that the simian crease is well-known for it’s significance in children & adults who have Down syndrome – there are quite a few other syndromes which show even higher percentages regarding the occurence of the simian crease, such as: the cat-cry syndrome, Edwards syndrome, Patau syndrome, and Cornelia de Lange syndrome.
The most common synonyms for the simian crease are: simian line, single transverse crease, single palmar crease
Read more about the role of the simian crease in Multi-Perspective Palm Reading:
What discriminates ‘Multi-Perspective Palm Reading’ from all other approaches in the field of hand reading?
Multi-Perspective Palm Reading is a new type of hand reading that is rising from scientific research reports that relate to the hand as a ‘diagnostic tool’. The unique characteristic of this advanced type of palm reading is that it only includes hand markers which have been confirmed to have significant value according scientific studies. So this NEXT NATURE variant of ‘palmistry’ is not connected anyhow with astrology nor any other philosophic system.
In Multi-Perspective Palm Reading is the hand studied from 7 different perspectives in order to make an assessment for various specified themes – which can result in either a confirming- or prognostic ‘hand-diagnosis’.
The philosophy behind Multi-Perspective Palm Reading:
The philosophy behind this new advanced type of hand reading can be described as follows:
“In Multi-Perspective Palm Reading, a reliable hand-diagnosis is only possible when a pair of hands displays ‘diagnostic clues’ in MULTIPLE perspectives of the hand. According Multi-Perspective Palm Reading a person typically requires to have ‘diagnostic clues’ in at least 3 perspectives of his/her hands, before one can speak of a solid, specified hand-diagnosis.
The application of this philosophy in the practice for making a hand assessment can be understood by studying the role of the simian line in hand diagnostics. In the 20th century the simian line (the most well known of all palm line variations: a.k.a. the single palmar transverse crease or simian crease) became known as a diagnostic marker for Down syndrome. However, during the past decades this uncommon hand marker was recognized as a ‘minor physical anomaly’ that has diagnostic value for other syndromes, diseases & developmental problems. But in order to specify it’s significance as a major hand line for the individual that has this characteristic in one or both hands, a study of the other perspectives of the hand is required!
The 7 perspectives used in Multi-Perspective Palm Reading:
In the following seven perspectives are required to be studied in order to make a thorough hand assessment:
1 – Palm Reading & the HAND SHAPE, including e.g.: hand index, palm shape, hand length, hand breath.
2 – Palm Reading & the FINGERNAILS, including e.g.: color, morphology, structure, growth.
3 – Palm Reading & FINGER MORPHOLOGY, including e.g.: finger length, 2D:4D ratio, variations in shape & width.
4 – Palm Reading & the MAJOR LINES, including e.g.: primary creases, secundary creases, tertairy creases & accessory lines.
5 – Palm Reading & the DERMATOGLYPHICS, including e.g.: fingerprints, palmar dermatoglyphics.
6 – Palm Reading & SKIN QUALITY, including e.g.: colour, structure, flexure / tone.
7 – Palm Reading & HAND MOTORICS, including e.g.: flexibility, motoric hand index.
Read more about how Multi-Perspective Palm Reading varies from other types of hand reading & modern palmistry via the Wikipedia section: Modern Palmistry: science & criticism
November 26, 2010
What are today the world’s most popular websites about the controversial topic named ‘palm reading’?
In november 2010 the new palmistry ‘ranking’ formula (based on internet statistics) was presented – and the results are now available!
An analysis of 370+ websites from 6 continents indicates that the following 10 websites today can be recognized as ‘leading’ in the field of modern hand reading (including: hand analysis, chirology, palm reading, palmistry, etc).
‘Click’ on the website thumbnail(s) for direct access!
NOTICE: The full TOP 100 ranking is available at:
A 48-year-old man presents with a 10-day history of fever, hand pain, watery diarrhea, weight loss, anorexia, and intermittent vomiting. Two nodules are noted on both thumbs of his hands. What is the diagnosis?
The lesions depicted in the photographs are Osler’s nodes. The nodes coupled with the clinical history were suspicious for infective endocarditis (IE). Medical records were obtained while the patient was undergoing evaluation in the ED. During his recent admission for these symptoms, he was told that he had endocardial vegetations and was treated with antibiotics, but he left the hospital against medical advice. Given his recent evaluation, subjective fevers, and the physical finding of Osler’s nodes, he was admitted for treatment of IE.
The incidence of IE ranges from 2.4 to 11.9 cases per 100,000 patient years. Of these, half occur in patients between the ages of 31 to 60 years. It is much more common in patients with preexisting cardiac structural anomalies or with other risk factors, such as injection drug use, prosthetic cardiac valves, or indwelling intravenous catheters. Native-valve IE occurs in 59% to 70% of cases, whereas prosthetic valve IE occurs in 14% to 30% of the time. Infective endocarditis associated with injection drug use accounts for 11% to 16% of cases.
The clinical presentation of infective endocarditis may vary. Patients whose IE is caused by highly virulent organisms, such as S aureus, have much higher morbidity and mortality, and they typically present with high fevers and rapid cardiopulmonary collapse. This rapidly deteriorating clinical course culminating in death within a few days is often referred to as acute bacterial endocarditis. Subacute bacterial endocarditis is a more indolent disease caused by less virulent bacteria, such as Streptococcus, and patients present with fever, malaise, and other nonspecific symptoms. The clinical presentation of IE can occur along a continuum between acute and subacute clinical pictures and may have overlapping bacterial etiologies. Classic presentations are uncommon; patients with IE can present with fever, chills, weakness, dyspnea, anorexia, malaise, nausea, and vomiting. In a busy ED, these common chief complaints can be easily overlooked.
Physical examination findings of IE include Osler’s nodes, Janeway lesions, Roth spots, and infectious embolic complications. Roth spots are not specific for IE and can occur in the context of other illnesses, such as systemic lupus erythematosus; however, Osler’s nodes and Janeway lesions are highly specific for IE. Osler’s nodes are small, painful nodules that appear on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet as well as the distal phalanges. They are between 2 mm and 15 mm in diameter, occasionally have a blanched center, are usually multiple, and transiently appear and resolve at different times over a period of days. There is disagreement about the etiology of these nodes. Many sources believe that Osler’s nodes are vascular phenomena resulting from immune-complex deposition into the vascular endothelium, whereas others describe the lesions as the result of microabscesses within the dermal arterioles and the papillary dermis. In contrast to painful Osler’s nodes, Janeway lesions are painless hemorrhagic plaques that are mostly present on the palms or soles. Roth spots are oval retinal hemorrhages located near the optic disc. Infectious valvular vegetations can embolize to the brain in up to 40% of IE cases; however, central nervous system manifestations of IE are not diagnostic of the condition.
The Duke Criteria used to diagnose endocarditis may be fulfilled by the finding of 2 major criteria, 1 major and 3 minor, or 5 minor criteria. The major criteria include 2 positive blood cultures or evidence of endocardial involvement on echocardiography. Minor criteria include predisposing factors, fever, vascular phenomena, immunologic phenomena, other microbiologic evidence (not meeting major criteria), and other echocardiographic findings (not meeting major criteria).
Given the diagnostic requirements, initial diagnostic studies include blood cultures, echocardiography, electrocardiography, and chest radiography. Blood cultures should be drawn from 3 separate sites over the course of an hour to increase the likelihood of identifying the bacterial species. Antibiotic therapy for acutely ill patients should be administered promptly. Cardiac echocardiography, either by noninvasive transthoracic echocardiography or transesophageal echocardiography (TEE, which is more sensitive and specific for diagnosing IE), can aid in the diagnosis of IE and provide critical information regarding the structure and function of the affected valves. Electrocardiographic findings are often nonspecific or normal, but they can show characteristic PR interval prolongation, bundle branch block, or complete heart block when the infection affects the conduction system. Surgical intervention is usually reserved for patients with severe valvular dysfunction, which is best elucidated by TEE; however, several other indications for surgery exist. Management of these patients requires infectious disease consultation.
The mainstay of treatment of bacterial endocarditis is intravenous antibiotics. Empiric therapy should be based on the characteristics of the given patient, whether an artificial valve is or is not involved, and local resistance patterns. Ultimately, definitive therapy should be based on the results of the blood culture and sensitivity. Empiric antibiotic therapy for endocarditis is tailored to cover the organisms that are most likely to infect a given patient group. For uncomplicated IE, bacteria commonly found in the upper respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and skin are likely to be the causative bacterium in patients with native-valve endocarditis acquired in the community. These include staphylococci, viridans streptococci, and Streptococcus bovis, as well as the “HACEK” organisms (Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, and Kingella); therefore, for empiric therapy for uncomplicated native-valve IE, intravenous ceftriaxone or nafcillin plus gentamicin is recommended. If the incidence of methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) is high, vancomycin should be used.
Complicated IE includes hospital-acquired infections, intravenous drug users, and artificial valve infections. Patients with hospital-acquired infections or intravenous drug use are more likely to have infection due to S aureus. Other common organisms for this patient population include gram-negative bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, group D enterococci, and fungal species (such as Candida). Patients with suspected MRSA infection, intravenous drug use, or suspected hospital-acquired infections should be empirically treated with a combination of vancomycin and gentamicin. For patients with artificial valves, the organisms are most likely to be S aureus and other coagulase-negative Staphylococcal species, enterococci, and gram-negative bacilli; therefore, these patients should be empirically treated with gentamicin, vancomycin, and rifampin. Rarely, patients with blood culture-negative endocarditis may be colonized with fastidious organisms, such as Granulicatella species, Abiotrophia species, Bartonella, Coxiella burnetii, Brucella, and Tropheryma whipplei.
Prophylaxis for patients with high-risk cardiac conditions (such as prosthetic heart valve or previous IE) is indicated when they are undergoing certain procedures. Amoxicillin or ampicillin is indicated for nonpenicillin-allergic patients 1 hour before the procedure. For penicillin-allergic patients, premedication with clarithromycin, azithromycin, clindamycin, cephalexin, cefazolin, or ceftriaxone is appropriate. Antibiotic or practice guideline references should be consulted before recommending prophylaxis.
The patient in this case was admitted and underwent TEE that confirmed the presence of 2 distinct lesions on the aortic valve suspicious for vegetations. He was started on a course of intravenous antibiotics, but unfortunately, he once again left the hospital against medical advice before completion of therapy.
FINAL HINT: Consider the history of fever, weakness, and tender, painful nodules on each thumb..
DIAGNOSIS: ‘Infectious endocarditis’ (in this case: resulting from injection drug abuse!).
READ MORE: MEDICAL HAND ANALYSIS.
October 17, 2010
Are you interested to ask a question about your hands? Or do you have a question about Palmistry / Palm Reading? You can now post your question and start participating in the discussions at:
And follow the latest news & developments related to modern hand reading!
The new forum offers e.g.:
- Free assistance by some very experienced Palmistry, Hand Analysis & Chirology experts in the world!
For example, you can also take a look at some ‘famous hands’:
PS. NOTICE: You can take a look into the forum without joining; if you would like to participate in the discussions your will have to join and become a member!!!
September 24, 2010
9 LINES & 9 NAMES:
CAN YOU FIND THE CONNECTIONS?
The names of the 9 hand lines are:
A = Buddha line (first described by Japanese palmist: Hachiro Asano)
B = Equipoise line* (first described by PDC chirologist: Arnold Holtzman)
C = Girdle of Venus (e.g. described by Australian hand reader: Andrew Fitzherbert)
D = Healing stigmata (e.g. described by US hand reader: William G. Benham)
E = Intuition line (e.g. described by US palmist: Nathaniel Altman)
F = Passion line (first described by UK chirologist: Johnny Fincham)
G = Poorva Punya (e.g. described by Canadian palmist: Ghanshyam Singh Birla)
H = Solomon ring (e.g. described by the Irish palmist: Cheiro)
I = Via Lascivia (e.g. described by US hand analyst Edward D. Campbell)
The QUIZ-task is quite simple:
‘Which line (in the picture above) belongs to which name?’
(You can submit your answers as a response to this blog post, but you can also discuss the details at the Modern Hand Reading Forum, at: The ‘Weird-Hand-Lines QUIZ’ – part 1)
The Books that were presented by the palm reading & palmistry experts mentioned behind the 9 lines are listed in:
Palmistry books TOP 100 – listed by ‘Amazon Sales Rank’
Are you interested to ask a question about your hands? Or do you have a question about Palmistry / Palm Reading? You can ask your question and start participating in the discussions at:
The forum offers:
- Free assistance from some very experienced Palmistry, Hand Analysis & Chirology experts in the world!
For example, you can also take a look at some ‘famous hands’:
PS. NOTICE: You can take a look into the forum without joining; if you would like to participate in the discussions your will have to join AND activate your account!!!
VoiceAmerica & cheirologist Kenneth Lagerstrom present the very first weekly radio show about hands:
“I will be hosting a new show on VoiceAmerica.com, the worlds largest internet talk radio. The show is titled “Your Life is in Your Hands”, with topics each week relating to the hands (of course). Starting March 30 it airs live each Tuesday at 11:00am Pacific time on Voice America’s “7th Wave” channel. The first episode is an introduction to palmistry and hand analysis, with guest Jennifer Hirsch.”
SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER READING:
Modern palm reading (cheirology) is not about predicting the future of individuals, it’s about the indvidual’s life (psychology, personality & temperament).
December 15, 2009
Handy Christmas Gift ideas + Hand Reading TOP 10
This year’s TOP 10 ‘handy’ Christmas gift suggestions are featured with a compilation of the 10 most recommended books in the ‘Palmistry books TOP 100′, a few very interesting books about other aspects of the human hand, and last but not least… a few very funny ‘handy’ or ‘tasty’ gadgets, such as the famous and delicious ‘Antwerpse Handjes’!
Are you still looking for ideas for this Santa Claus & Xmas holiday season? Maybe you should check out this year’s products that were carefully selected on the basis of quality & popularity (e.g. expert ratings, Amazon sales rank + customer ratings)!
Check out the 2009 ideas:
Illustrations: a few of the 2009 Christmas gift recommendations.