Hand shape varies between the two sexes: males typically have larger, relatively broader hands, while females typically have smaller, relatively narrower hands. But hand shape also varies among the various populations around the world: in Asia the avarage hand shape is relatively narrower than in European & North American countries. And there is even a link between hand shape & intelligence!
But in order to understand these patterns properly, one first has to understand the relations ship between hand shape & body length. Because in general, all longer populations in the world (males, Europeans & North Americans) typically display a relatively broad hand shape, while all small populations (females, Asians) typically display a relatively narrow hand shape.
A good measure to describe the shape of the hand is the so-called ‘hand index’, which is defined as the ratio between the ‘hand width’ (= palm width measured at the metacapals) vs. the ‘hand length’ (= the distance between the tip of the middle finger and the distal wrist crease).
The average ‘hand index’ in human kind is close to 0.44, and is typically much higher than the ‘hand index’ seen in primates, which is typically (far) below 0.40 (though in gorillas – the largest of all primate species – the ‘hand index’ is higher than 0.40).
NOTICE: Finger length can also be measured relative to ‘hand length’ & ‘hand width’, but that topic will be discussed later.
HAND SHAPE & SEXE:
In males the ‘hand index’ is typically higher than 0.44, and measures above 0.45 are often seen. While in females the ‘hand index’ is typically lower than 0.44, and measures below 0.43 are not rare at all. These sexe differences are for a large part the result of the body height differences between males and females.
HAND SHAPE & RACE:
The average ‘hand index’ among the various races differs significantly, and is typically lower among asians. In people from China does not vary a lot from the average of human kind, but among for example people from Japan & India the ‘hand index’ is typically close to 0.43 or even lower. At least partly these differences are explained by racial differences in body height.
HAND SHAPE & IQ:
A high hand index typically correlates with a low IQ. And this link between hand shape & IQ has been confirmed in quite a few studies among various types of populations.
In a 1980 study in the former Yugoslavia reported among 540 men a negative correlation between hand index & all 10 measures for IQ.
Regarding the sexe differences, one has to be aware of the earlier mentioned point that tall populations typically have a higher ‘hand index’. The fact that women have a lower ‘hand index’ compared to men, is largely neutralized by the fact that women are smaller than men. And therefore there one should not associate this sexe difference with IQ differences among the sexes (because so far there is no evidence for that at all).
And finally there is evidence that when the ‘hand index’ is corrected for body height, then this appears to explain a significant part of the IQ differences that are typically seen between the nations of the world. Though this issue has not been studied thoroughly.
HIGH OR LOW ‘HAND INDEX’ IN INDIVUALS:
The above describes patterns for hand shape implicate that regarding the implications of a high or low ‘hand index’ indivuals, one always has to consider sexe & race before jumping into conclusions!
Time for a hand shape palm reading… what is your ‘hand index’?
January 18, 2011
Most people are aware that they have fingerprints. But few people are aware of the likewise dermatoglyphic features in their palms. One of the most interesting characteristics of the palmar dermatoglyphics concerns the so-called AtD-angle: which concerns the angle between the a- triradius (under the index finger), the axial triradius (near the wrist), and the d-triradius (under the pinky finger).
A 2010 STUDY:
A 1980 STUDY:
January 10, 2011
The previous post introduced Dermatoglyphics Multiple Intelligence Test (DMIT) – which e.g. describes how various aspects of intelligence could relate to the 10 individual fingers & the brain lobes. Unfortunately there appears to be no (academic) scientific evidence available which confirms the validity of the DMIT-model. But there appears to be multiple evidence available which does confirm that various hand features do provide clues to the general intelligence - specified to the intelligence quotient (IQ)!
In the next 3 posts a quick introduction to how various hand dimensions correlate with IQ, starting with: hand shape.
• HAND SHAPE & IQ:
NOTICE: The ‘hand index’ is defined as: 100 x the quotient of the palm width and the hand length. A ‘hand index’ of 0.47 or higher could be described as high, because far most international ’hand index’ studies so far indicate that the average varies from 42 to 0.46 (Japanese males: 43.1, American males: 46; Japanese females: 42.3, American females: 43.7).
So, one could expect that a low ‘hand index’ could provide a clue to a high IQ. But one should be very aware of the fact that the ‘hand index’ varies among men (higher) and women (lower), and among ethnic populations (lower in asians, higher in caucasians).
Interestingly… a 1980 Zagreb study on a large sample of males (N=540) has pointed out that ‘hand width’ does correlate negative with IQ (confirmed at all 10 IQ measures involved in the study). The study also reported that ’hand length’ did not correlate with IQ – some of the dimensions produced very small positive correlations, which raises the question whether ‘hand index’ would have produced more signficant results than ‘hand width’.
NOTICE: The 1980 study also reveal that all 10 IQ measures produced positive correlations which ’body height’ – a result which has been confirmed by many studies.
The picture below demonstrates how to measure ‘hand width’: in scientific studies this is always done at the position of the metacarpals (0ne could use the starting point of the life line as an easy identifyable point of reference).
And hand length is measure from the distal wrist crease to the tip of the middle finger.
In 1983 American developmental psychologist Dr. Howard Gardner argued that the concept of intelligence as traditionally defined in psychometrics (IQ tests) does not sufficiently describe the wide variety of cognitive abilities humans display. His theory became know under the name ’Multiple Intelligence’ (MI). A few years ago a rather remarkable commercial spin-off from Gardner’s theory became available: a product named the DMIT, which stands for: ’Dermatoglyphics Multiple Intelligence Test’.
The origins of the DMIT test were developed in Taiwan, and became available in various Asian countries as a franchise product. The product claims to be a scientific product focussed on assessing the ‘multiple intelligences’ of young children. Basically, the product suggests that one can assess Gardner’s multiple intelligences via the 10 fingerprints of your hand. And the assumption is made that each finger is connected with the 5 brain lobes of the hemispheres (see the picture below).
Is the DMIT a valid test?
So far there appears to be no public research available to answer this question – though an intelligent reader could recognize from this point solely a clue about the nature of this so-called ‘scientific test’.
By the way, Gardner’s theory describes only eight basic types of intelligence to date - though without claiming that this is a complete list. Gardner’s original list included only seven of these, but in 1999 he added a naturalist intelligence. He has also considered existential intelligence and moral intelligence, but does not find sufficient evidence for these based upon his articulated criteria.
Howard Garnder’s ’multiple intelligences’:
More detailed considerations + links to GeneCode & ThumbRule DMIT websites are available at the Modern Hand Reading Forum:
September 4, 2010
In 2004 Chinese researchers present a new approach to study the hand lines for biometric purposes. They applied a mathematical model on hand prints and were able to identify six types of palmar crease variations - based on the core characteristics of the three ‘major palmar lines’. Recently, in line with the Chinese research a new more advanced (PIC) model was introduced which e.g. describes 21 types of major hand line variations which are displayed in ’a family tree of the major hand line types’: see the picture above.
Interestingly, the new study reports e.g. about a correlation between the palmar lines and intelligence (IQ): left hand vs. right hand asymmetries appear to be involved, plus a lower prevalence of MPA’s – such as the simian line & Sydney line).
More details are available in the article:
What can formations in hand lines reveal?
For more information about various aspects of the palmar lines the following book is recommended:
‘Anthropology of Crease Morphogenesis’.
NOTICE: The three major palmar lines concern:
- The ‘radial longitudinal crease’, in palmistry a.k.a. the ‘life line’;
- The ‘distal transversal crease’, in palmistry a.k.a. the ‘heart line’;
- The ‘proximal transveral crease’, in palmistry a.k.a. the ‘head line’.
Related news reports & articles are available at:
News about the palmar creases / hand lines.