The video ‘Evolution of the human hand’ - presents a detailed picture of how modern science perceives the evolution of the human hand in time. The video is sort of based on Darwin’s evolution theory, but the details were delevered by experts in anthropology who studied how the hand shape, finger length & palmar creases evolved during the past 1.8 million years.

The video demonstrates how the ‘early’ humanoid hands (and primates) are typically featured with 3 or more ‘complete transverse creases’ (multiple simian lines), which are positioned horizontal in the hand + two major vertical lines. While at the end of the video displays a typical human hand featured with only 2 curved, oblique positioned ‘primary palmar creases’ (heart line and head line) + one major vertical line (life line).

And the differences between the human hand and the hands of primates served as a model for the evolution of the human hand in time - see below the hands of a man compared to the hands of a baboon, orangutang & chimpanzee.

Many other fascinating details about the evolution of the human hand are described in the work of physician John Napier, titled: Hands.

Another important figure in the history of medical science was the Scottish surgeon John Hunter, who turned the attention of science from the structure of hands to it’s function:

“Structure is the intimate expression of function”

- John Hunter, Scottish surgeon (1728-1793) -

More details about the evolution of other features of the human hand are presented in the articles:

1) The evolution & mystery of the five fingers

2) The history & evolution of the palmar lines

The hand of early hominids (30.000 years old).

The hand of Neanderthals (300.000 years old).

The hand of 'Ardi' (4.4 million years old).

The has conducted a simian crease poll among parents of children who have Down syndrome.

The result confirms the significance of the simian line in Down syndrome, because 41 of the 95 participants (=43%) reported that their child has Down’s syndrome.

But the diagnostic signficance of a simian crease (simian line) is unspecific. Despite the fact that the simian crease is well-known for it’s significance in children & adults who have Down syndrome – there are quite a few other syndromes which show even higher percentages regarding the occurence of the simian crease, such as: the cat-cry syndrome, Edwards syndrome, Patau syndrome, and Cornelia de Lange syndrome.

The most common synonyms for the simian crease are: simian line, single transverse crease, single palmar crease


Read more about the role of the simian crease in Multi-Perspective Palm Reading:

The hockey-stick palmar crease: a typical characteristic in CHARGE & fetal alcohol syndrome!

The ‘hockey-stick’ palmar crease is an unusual variant of the distal palmar crease – in palmistry a.k.a. the ‘heart line’. The typical characteristic concerns the widening of the crease combined with a termination between the index- and middle finger.

The ‘hockey-stick’ crease is relatively common in CHARGE, and in fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS).


A typical CHARGE hand displays a combination of the following characteristics: square hand, short fingers, finger-like thumb, and hockey-stick palmar crease.


A typical FAS hand displays a combination of the following characteristics: small thumb, short fingers, clinodactyly (curved 5th finger), camptodactyly, broad palm, and hockey-stick palmar crease.

Simian crease
Sydney line

Hands event at 'Welcome Collection' (Nov 26, London)

 At November 26 the ‘Welcome Collection’ in London presents their ‘Hands’ event! How would our society look like without any hands? We sense, create and communicate with our hands. A social event for the incurably curious and celebrate these vital parts of our bodies across four floors of Wellcome Collection!!

From medicine to mesmerism, magic to mannerisms, visitors will find out about the curious history of digits, palms, fingers and thumbs, and put their own to use, as we celebrate the organs that shape the world around us. We will have scientists, artists, palmists and magicians at hand for discussions, performances and, of course, hands-on activities, all designed to make us look afresh at our body. ‘Manipulate’, ‘manoeuvre’ and ‘manufacture’ are all words deriving from the Latin word ‘manus’, meaning hand. These creative appendages allow us to make, touch and feel, but they also hold mystical and cultural significance. For one night only, visitors can explore a digital age that goes back millennia. 


• Revel in the mystery of hands with palmistry and neuroscience illusions.
• Try out some nail art.
• Get dexterous with games and computers from different ages – and paper, scissors, stone.
• Enjoy an installation produced by young people from HCA, Coram’s Fields, KCBNA and artist Elaine Duigenan.
• Try out some surgeon’s tools, and see how steady your hands are.
• Explore the wonders of handwriting in the Wellcome Library, and meet a palaeographer and a graphologist.
• Play a piano and see your digits up close.
• Enjoy the physical theatre performance of The Articulate Hand with Andrew Dawson. Performances start at 20.00 and 21.45. Tickets are available on the night of the event only.
• Hear from evolution expert Christophe Soligo on the difference between the hands of apes and humans. Tickets are available on the night of the event only.
Chris McManus will uncover the science of left and right handedness. Tickets are available on the night of the event only.

LOCATION: 183 Euston Road, London (nov 26, 19:00 – 23:00) 

It’s a FREE event, so anyone can drop in anytime!!

A discussion about more details of this ‘hands’ event is available at the Modern Hand Reading Forum.


Just to avoid misunderstandings, I will briefly describe each of the hand lines in the picture above:

Line 1 = extra crease on the 1st phalange (beyond the distal interphalangeal crease)
Line 2 = extra crease on the 2nd phalange (in 1 or more fingers)
Line 3 = single crease on the pinky finger
Line 4 = extra crease on the thumb
Line 5 = ‘hockey-stick crease’
Line 6 = simian crease
Line 7 = Sydney crease
Line 8 = transverse hypothenar crease
Line 9 = secondary creases: unusually high density

The names of the 9 disorders are:

A = Alagille syndrome (= genetic disorder related to e.g. the liver, heart & kidney)
B = Coffin-Lowry syndrome (= genetic disorder: e.g. mental problems, health)
C = Down’s syndrome (= genetic disorder: trisomy 21, e.g. mental handicap, health)
F = Edward’s syndrome (= genetic disorder: trisomy 18, e.g. low rate of survival)
D = Fetal alcohol syndrome (= caused by alcohol abuse during pregnancy)
E = Fragile X syndrome (= genetic disorder: Xq27, e.g. mental handicap, autism)
G = Pit-Rogers-Dank syndrome (= e.g. growth disorder, mental retardation)
H = Schizophrenia (= psychiatric disorder)
I = Sickle Cell Diseases (= blood disorder)

The QUIZ-task is very simple:
‘Which line (in the picture above) belongs to which disorder?’

(You can submit your answers as a response to this blog post, but you can also discuss the details at the Modern Hand Reading Forum, at:     The ‘Weird-Hand-Lines QUIZ’ – part 2)

Some ‘clues’ for finding the right connections are provided by MEDICAL HAND ANALYSIS.


The names of the 9 hand lines are:

A = Buddha line (first described by Japanese palmist: Hachiro Asano)
B = Equipoise line* (first described by PDC chirologist: Arnold Holtzman)
C = Girdle of Venus (e.g. described by Australian hand reader: Andrew Fitzherbert)
D = Healing stigmata (e.g. described by US hand reader: William G. Benham)
E = Intuition line (e.g. described by US palmist: Nathaniel Altman)
F = Passion line (first described by UK chirologist: Johnny Fincham)
G = Poorva Punya (e.g. described by Canadian palmist: Ghanshyam Singh Birla)
H = Solomon ring (e.g. described by the Irish palmist: Cheiro)
I = Via Lascivia (e.g. described by US hand analyst Edward D. Campbell)

The QUIZ-task is quite simple:
‘Which line (in the picture above) belongs to which name?’

(You can submit your answers as a response to this blog post, but you can also discuss the details at the Modern Hand Reading Forum, at:     The ‘Weird-Hand-Lines QUIZ’ – part 1)

The Books that were presented by the palm reading & palmistry experts mentioned behind the 9 lines are listed in:
Palmistry books TOP 100 – listed by ‘Amazon Sales Rank’

What are the major hand characteristics of the 1st Afro-American ‘First Lady’? Just like her husband, Michelle Obama has a ‘low 2D:4D digit ratio’. But unlike Barack Obama, she has a double ‘head line’ – in medical science a.k.a. the distal transverse crease.

Michelle Obama’s ‘digit ratio’ appears to be close to 0.94, which is rather low – even for an African-American woman.

NOTICE: The average ‘ digit ratio for women is close to 0.98, but in Afro-Americans the average ‘digit ratio’ is slightly lower – likely close to 0.96.

A typical female-like characteristic is her short pinky finger, which has been associated with ‘higher emotional sensitivity’ – a high score on the Big Five dimension Neuroticism (which is associated with persons who are easily upset in the face of very minor stresses; a person with high neuroticism gets easily: anxious, worried, moody & unstable).

But her ‘low digit ratio’ indicates that she does put this ‘higher emotional sensitivity’ into action, which might explain why during the presidential campaign media have tried to label her as an angry black woman“.

Nevertheless, it appears that her populatity has not suffered on her husband’s  Presidential Approval Index rating of -20.

According the ‘The Encyclopedia of Palmistry a ‘double head line’ has been associated with versatility and a great command of language & determination. But it could also point to having ‘two persona’. So maybe the ’double head line’ provides a clue why the current ‘First Lady’ was able to turn her career  as a layer into a fashion icon and role model for women, and a notable advocate for poverty awareness and healthy eating.

More famous hands: celebrities, movie stars, and many more!

A 'family tree' of the major major lines.

In 2004 Chinese researchers present a new approach to study the hand lines for biometric purposes. They applied a mathematical model on hand prints and were able to identify six types of  palmar crease variations - based on the core characteristics of the three ‘major palmar lines’. Recently, in line with the Chinese research a new more advanced (PIC) model was introduced which e.g. describes 21 types of major hand line variations which are displayed in ‘a family tree of the major hand line types’: see the picture above.

Interestingly, the new study reports e.g. about a correlation between the palmar lines and intelligence (IQ): left hand vs. right hand asymmetries appear to be involved, plus a lower prevalence of MPA’s – such as the simian line & Sydney line).

More details are available in the article:
What can formations in hand lines reveal?

For more information about various aspects of the palmar lines the following book is recommended:
‘Anthropology of Crease Morphogenesis’.

NOTICE: The three major palmar lines concern:

- The ‘radial longitudinal crease’, in palmistry a.k.a. the ‘life line’;
- The ‘distal transversal crease’, in palmistry a.k.a. the ‘heart line’;
- The ‘proximal transveral crease’, in palmistry a.k.a. the ‘head line’.

Related news reports & articles are available at:
News about the palmar creases / hand lines.

MODERN PALMISTRY - The New International Community for Reading Hands!

Are you interested to ask a question about your hands? Or do you have a question about Palmistry / Palm Reading? You can ask your question and start participating in the discussions at:

Modern Palmistry – the new forum at! 


The forum offers:

- Free assistance from some very experienced Palmistry, Hand Analysis & Chirology experts in the world!
- A rich history of discussions and shared palmistry materials!

For example, you can also take a look at some ‘famous hands’:

• The hands of Dennis Hopper
• The hands of Michael Jackson
• The hands of Nelson Mandela

PS. NOTICE: You can take a look into the forum without joining; if you would like to participate in the discussions your will have to join AND activate your account!!!

Hand of a new born baby.

In the hours after a baby is born, the baby will have several tests and examinations to check that he is healthy and well. Knowing what the doctors are looking for will put your mind at rest and give you the opportunity to ask any questions you might have. What is included in the ‘new born baby hand test’?


“The baby’s arms, hands, legs and feet will be checked. The fingers and toes are counted to make sure they are all there and to check for webbing (syndactyly). The hand palms will be checked for two palmar creases; a single palmar creases (a.k.a. simian line) is less common, however 4 per cent of the population have one palmar crease on one hand and 1 per cent have one palmar crease on both hands. This is sometimes associated with Down’s syndrome but in the unlikely event of your baby being affected there would be other hand signs, such as the ‘high positioned axial triradius’.”

Development of the hand lines in a baby hand!
Hand characteristics in Down’s syndrome!
Hand characteristics in fragile-X syndrome!
Preserving the shapes of a babies’ hands!